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adenosine

 [ah-den´o-sēn]
1. a nucleoside composed of the pentose sugar d-ribose and adenine. It is a structural subunit of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Adenosine nucleotides are involved in the energy metabolism of all cells. Adenosine can be linked to a chain of one, two, or three phosphate groups to form adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The bond between the phosphate groups in ADP or the two bonds between phosphate groups in ATP are called high-energy bonds, because hydrolysis of a high-energy bond provides a large amount of free energy that can be used to drive other processes that would not otherwise occur. The energy that is derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, or proteins is used to synthesize ATP. The energy stored in ATP is then used directly or indirectly to drive all other cellular processes that require energy, of which there are four major types: (1) the transport of molecules and ions across cell membranes against concentration gradients, which maintains the internal environment of the cell and produces the membrane potential for the conduction of nerve impulses; (2) the contraction of muscle fibers and other fibers producing the motion of cells; (3) the synthesis of chemical compounds; (4) the synthesis of other high-energy compounds.
Adenosine.
2. a preparation of adenosine, which acts as a cardiac depressant of automaticity in the sinus node and conduction in the atrioventricular node and as a vasodilator. It is used as an antiarrhythmic and is also used to cause coronary vasodilation during myocardial perfusion imaging in patients who cannot exercise adequately to perform an exercise stress test, administered intravenously.
cyclic adenosine monophosphate a cyclic nucleotide, adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, involved in the action of many hormones, including catecholamines, ACTH, and vasopressin. The hormone binds to a specific receptor on the cell membrane of target cells. This activates an enzyme, adenylate cyclase, which produces cyclic AMP from ATP. Cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger activating other enzymes within the cell. Abbreviated 3′,5′-AMP, cAMP, and cyclic AMP.
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-pyrophosphate, produced by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is then converted back to ATP by the metabolic processes oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
adenosine monophosphate (AMP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-phosphate, involved in energy metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. Called also adenylic acid.
adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. Examples are the splitting of ATP in muscle contraction and the transport of ions across cell membranes.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-triphosphate, occurring in all cells, where it stores energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds. Free energy is supplied to drive metabolic reactions, to transport molecules against concentration gradients (active transport), and to produce mechanical motion (contraction of myofibrils and microtubules), when ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and inorganic phosphate or to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate. ATP is also used to produce high-energy phosphorylated intermediary metabolites, such as glucose 6-phosphate.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

cAMP

Abbreviation for adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP).
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

cAMP

abbr.
cyclic AMP
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

cAMP

Abbreviation for adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
After management at the three-star beachside hotel refused to place them in another room Mr Jones, who was then working at Pontardawe Fire Station, elected to sleep on the camp bed, which had wooden slats.
The injury was caused somewhere in the vicinity between the sofa and the camp bed."
A camp bed, stove and kettle were also found, as well as a kettle barbecue which was still warm.
The broadcaster and journalist made headlines when she was caught on infra-red camera urinating next to her camp bed. "I could never have done itwithout all of you," she said, as she hugged all the other contestants who had come back for the finale.
Doddy is notorious for his lengthy sets so June has stated on my official Insider invite 'Be early.' Surely 'bring a flask and camp bed' would be a better warning!
My kids went through a stage of wanting to sleep in our bed, so we gradually got them into a camp bed, then into their own rooms.
The broadcaster and journalist made headlines when she was caught on infra-red camera urinating next to her camp bed. "I could never have done it without all of you," she said, as she hugged all the other contestants who had come back for the finale.
Staff and pupils created a special living history room using Colonel Johnson's camp bed and other items he and the enthusiastic youngsters brought to school.
He then sat on his camp bed and opened his first bottle of Scotch of the day.
''Honestly there are times I think I might as well just buy myself a camp bed and sleep on it and leave my own bed for the other three.
Instead of taking popcorn and nachos into the cinema, I promise you'd be better off with a camp bed.
Tip toeing INTOTEENWOLFs lair, an act I don't consider unless it's an emergency, to check he was still pink, healthy and breathing he was in a deep, deep sleep with one pal on the camp bed and another on a mound of cushions on the floor."Are you OK?" I said nudging him.