calving

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calving

act of parturition in a bovine female, and presumably in any animal that bears a calf as its newborn. See also block calving, ease of calving.

calving-to-conception interval
interval between calving and the next conception date.
difficult calving
calving facilities
yards, crush, chute, hot and cold water, shelter, all the resources necessary for capturing and restraining a cow while helping her to deliver a calf.
calving-to-first-estrus interval
interval between calving and the first observed estrus. Data used as a measure of reproductive performance, especially dairy herds where block mating needs to be completed in as brief an interval as possible.
calving-to-first-service interval
alternative to calving-to-first-estrus interval but does not take into account any deferral of mating for managerial reasons.
calving grounds
cows that are run on very extensive grazing may need to be under close surveillance by calving time. A small area of land can be enclosed or the herd herded into it—the calving ground.
calving index
any method of expressing reproductive efficiency on the basis of the number of calves produced. May refer to the average calving interval or to the percentage of calves produced by the mated group of cows.
calving induction
see parturition induction.
calving injury
damage to the uterus, vagina and vulva or surrounding tissues, especially obturator and sciatic nerves, caused by the parturition process.
calving interval
the average time interval between successive calvings.
calving pad
a small area specifically prepared with sand or limestone base and bedding of material such as rice hulls or sawdust, where all cows are located for calving. Allows intense supervision of periparturient and calving cows.
calving paralysis
see maternal obstetric paralysis.
calving pattern
of a herd is a chronological list of calving dates. In seasonally calving herds a compact list indicates high fertility, a stretched out list indicates an indifferent fertility level.
calving percentage
see calf crop percentage.
calving record
a record of the reproductive efficiency of each dam in the form of dates, events and procedures related to reproductive function.
calving season
season of the year at which the herd, or other population of cows, calves, e.g. spring calving.
seasonal calving
when the cows in a herd calve at about the same time. Thus spring calving, autumn calving. Usually used as a management tool to take maximum advantage of seasonal feed supplies or climate.
year-round calving
herd management system in which cows are mated so that some cows in the herd will calve at all times of the year thus maintaining a regular milk supply for a fresh milk supply.
References in periodicals archive ?
In Red Sindhi cows calving interval of447 to 461 days has been reported while range is 437 to546 days for Indian herds.
Since reproductive performance traits were generated consecutively through lifetime, and cows with only first lactation data do not have a calving interval, the numbers of trait SC were different from the number of trait FC.
Repeatability estimates for calving interval in different breeds of dairy cattle
Calving Interval: The first calving interval averaged 543+-17.
Proportion (%) of cows and first calf heifers milking in the adult dairy herd as influenced by lactation length, inter calving interval and calving rate (Moran, 2009) Lactation Calving Inter calving interval (m) length (d) rate (%) 12 15 18 330 90 -- 65 54 300 74 59 49 270 67 53 44 240 59 47 39 330 80 -- 58 48 300 66 53 39 270 59 47 35 240 53 42 32 330 70 -- 51 42 300 58 46 38 270 52 41 35 240 46 37 31 Table 6.
And this would result from tight calving intervals.
In some cases, the 305 milk yield increased with increasing parity and calving interval.
This means average calving intervals have increased by eight days in Cheshire and by six in Lancashire over the past three years.
Converting to organic dairy farming: Consequences for production, somatic cell scores and calving interval of first parity Holstein cows.
To explore effective breeding strategies for reproductive performance, extensive research has been conducted on a large variety of traits: days to calving, calving interval, calving success, calving difficulty, etc.
She amassed 1,117kg of fat and protein The hardest fought competition was for the Midland Bank Trophy assessed on fat and protein, calving interval and the herd PIN.
These targets were increasing the herd's overall health and animal welfare status, a reduction in calving interval and age at first calving as well as an increase in herd numbers at the farm in Brechin, near Aberdeen.