calving

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calving

act of parturition in a bovine female, and presumably in any animal that bears a calf as its newborn. See also block calving, ease of calving.

calving-to-conception interval
interval between calving and the next conception date.
difficult calving
calving facilities
yards, crush, chute, hot and cold water, shelter, all the resources necessary for capturing and restraining a cow while helping her to deliver a calf.
calving-to-first-estrus interval
interval between calving and the first observed estrus. Data used as a measure of reproductive performance, especially dairy herds where block mating needs to be completed in as brief an interval as possible.
calving-to-first-service interval
alternative to calving-to-first-estrus interval but does not take into account any deferral of mating for managerial reasons.
calving grounds
cows that are run on very extensive grazing may need to be under close surveillance by calving time. A small area of land can be enclosed or the herd herded into it—the calving ground.
calving index
any method of expressing reproductive efficiency on the basis of the number of calves produced. May refer to the average calving interval or to the percentage of calves produced by the mated group of cows.
calving induction
see parturition induction.
calving injury
damage to the uterus, vagina and vulva or surrounding tissues, especially obturator and sciatic nerves, caused by the parturition process.
calving interval
the average time interval between successive calvings.
calving pad
a small area specifically prepared with sand or limestone base and bedding of material such as rice hulls or sawdust, where all cows are located for calving. Allows intense supervision of periparturient and calving cows.
calving paralysis
see maternal obstetric paralysis.
calving pattern
of a herd is a chronological list of calving dates. In seasonally calving herds a compact list indicates high fertility, a stretched out list indicates an indifferent fertility level.
calving percentage
see calf crop percentage.
calving record
a record of the reproductive efficiency of each dam in the form of dates, events and procedures related to reproductive function.
calving season
season of the year at which the herd, or other population of cows, calves, e.g. spring calving.
seasonal calving
when the cows in a herd calve at about the same time. Thus spring calving, autumn calving. Usually used as a management tool to take maximum advantage of seasonal feed supplies or climate.
year-round calving
herd management system in which cows are mated so that some cows in the herd will calve at all times of the year thus maintaining a regular milk supply for a fresh milk supply.
References in periodicals archive ?
12) In Ganz's terms, the filmmakers' "story of self"--their deeply felt concern for the caribou they lived with--becomes a "story of us" of democratic citizens, and a "story of now" because the actions Americans take will determine the future of the Arctic Refuge calving grounds.
Caribou distribution on the Bathurst calving grounds, NWT, June 1995.
Areas within calving grounds already identified as having high mineral potential would be left open for exploitation.
2005: Influence of population growth on caribou herd identity, calving ground fidelity, and behavior.
The Gwich'in on both sides of the border have vigorously opposed oil development, fearing that development in the herd's most frequent calving ground in ANWR's coastal plain area might jeopardize their livelihood and even their culture.
There are 23 calving grounds in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
The wildlife decline is associated with the conversion of critical areas, such as migration routes and calving grounds, to mechanized farming," Apollo Kariuki, a scientist with Kenya Wildlife Service, told Kyodo News in Nairobi.
Besides being relatively free of predators, the calving grounds abound with lichens and, as snow melts, nutritious greening plants that encourage milk production in mothers.
Alaska's Gwich'in Indians fear that proposed oil drilling on caribou calving grounds could end their ancient culture
The proposed oil wells--and the labyrinth of pipes, roads, and gravel pits that would accompany them--would stretch directly across the Porcupine Caribou calving grounds.
The coastal section of California's Redwood National Park, for example, is an outstanding place to watch California gray whales as they swim from the Bering Sea in Alaska to warm-water calving grounds in Baja California.
The Bush administration recommends opening the coastal plain to oil exploration and drilling; environmentalists want the entire coastal plain designated as wilderness to protect caribou calving grounds and other wildlife habitats from future development.