The myoepithelial cells expressed p63 (Figure 3b), smooth muscle actin, and calponin
, while the epithelial cells showed strong positivity for cytokeratin (CK) (Figure 3c), epithelial membrane antigen, and CD117 (Figure 3d) by immunohistochemical staining.
, which is a protein encoded by the CNN3 gene, regulates actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, which is needed for the plasma trophoblast membranes to become fusion competent (16).
The amino terminus consists of two calponin
homology domains that together constitute the actin-binding domain (ABD), followed by 24 filamin-type immunoglobulin (Ig-FLMN) repeated domains (rod-overlapping domains), the most carboxy-terminal of which is responsible for dimerization, assembly, and anchor filaments.
Immunohistochemical studies such as panCK, Calponin
, CD10, p63 can be used to evaluate epithelial and myoepithelial cells in cases with malignancy suspicion.
Duct lining cells are positive for C-kit (CD 117) and myoepithelial cells are positive for S-100 protein, calponin
, p63, smooth muscle actin, and myosin.
Most studies have detected negative staining for calponin
, CK15, smooth muscle actin, ER, PR, HER2, and CK5/6 (14).
It shows vimentin (+), anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 (+), calponin
(+/-), SMA (+/-), CD34 (-), C-kit (-), keratin (-) and S100 (-) staining patterns.
Immunohistochemically, the tumor is strongly positive for SMA, vimentin, actin, calponin
, type IV collagen, and laminin.
Genes included are: trafficking protein particle complex 8 (TRAPPC8) for HMC and apolipoprotein B antigen (APOB), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), coiled-coil domain containing 88A (CCDC88A; transcript variant 1), complement factor H (CFH), collagen, type XXVIII, alpha 1 (COL28A1), glycoprotein IX (GP9 [platelet]), ligase IV (LIG4, DNA, ATP-dependent), melanoma inhibitory activity family, member 3 (MIA3), microtubule associated monooxygenase, calponin
and LIM domain containing 2 (MICAL2), RE1silencing transcription factor (REST), small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 1 (SNAPC1, 43 kDa; transcript variant 1), TNF receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), UTP18 small subunit processome component homolog (UTP18 [yeast]), and LOC428119 (uncharacterized protein) for LMC.
Nesprin-1 and Nesprin-2 harbor at their N-terminus paired calponin
homology domains that mediate the binding to Factin [3, 4].
In cases where definitive histological classification is difficult, the algorithmic approach as proposed by Udager and Rungta using a limited set of immunohistological stains (pancytokeratin, vimentin, calponin
, and p63) seems to be more sensible .
The knockdown of HOX genes in VW-MPSCs reduced their sprouting capacity and increased their levels of smooth muscle markers, transgelin and calponin
, as well as histone H1.