calmodulins

calmodulins

(kal″mŏdj′i-lĭnz)
Intracellular proteins that combine with calcium ions to activate the contraction of smooth muscle and other processes.

calmodulins

Small intracellular proteins that can bind to one to four calcium ions, producing complexes that can change the configuration of associated proteins such as enzymes. Calmodulins react to changing calcium levels and are involved in such processes as cell proliferation, glucose metabolism and the release of neurotransmitters.
References in periodicals archive ?
Protein-serine/threonine kinases, myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthases and calmodulins, as the members of ABA and IP3/Ca2+ signal transduction pathway, played an important role in the low temperature stress.
Auxin responsive and transport protein, abscisic acid receptor, serine/threonine protein kinases and calmodulin were involved in signal transduction under low temperature stress.
In our experiment, 4 myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase genes and 3 calmodulin genes participated in the resistance to low temperature stress, and the expression of calmodulin genes continued to increase during low temperature treatment.
The downstream components; mitogen-activated protein kinases, Hsp90 and calmodulins are involved in the activation of Heat-shock transcription factors (Hsf).
Among different classes of Ca2+ sensors calmodulin (CaM), calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) and CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs), are the best characterized (Reddy et al., 2011; Yu et al., 2014).
It may transduce the signal to downstream transcription factors including Calmodulin Binding Transcription Activators (CAMTAs) (Pandey et al., 2013), GT-element-binding-like proteins (GTLs) (Weng et al., 2012) and MYBs (Yoo et al., 2005; Xie et al., 2014).
Gruissem, "Calmodulins and calcineurin B-like proteins: calcium sensors for specific signal response coupling in plants," Plant Cell, vol.
Braam, "Calmodulins and related potential calcium sensors of Arabidopsis," New Phytologist, vol.
Galaud, "Plant calmodulins and calmodulin-related proteins: multifaceted relays to decode calcium signals," Plant Signaling & Behavior, vol.
Several families of [Ca.sup.2+] sensors have been identified in higher plants based on the presence of EF-hand motifs including calmodulin proteins (CaMs) and calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs), calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs), and [Ca.sup.2+]-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) [4, 5, 7-12].
Ranty, "Calmodulin and calmodulin-like proteins in plant calcium signaling," Biochimie, vol.
Yoo et al., "WRKY group IId transcription factors interact with calmodulin," FEBS Letters, vol.