calmative

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sedative

 [sed´ah-tiv]
1. allaying irritability, excitement, or nervousness.
2. an agent that does this. The usual mode of action is depression of the central nervous system, which tends to cause lassitude and reduced mental activity. Sedatives are distinct from tranquilizers, which also have a calming effect but unlike sedatives usually do not suppress bodily reactions. Sedatives may be classified according to the organ most affected, such as cardiac, gastric, and so on. Called also calmative.



The degree of relaxation produced varies with the kind of sedative, the dose, the means of administration, and the mental state of the patient. By causing relaxation, a sedative may help a patient go to sleep, but it does not put him to sleep. Medicines that induce sleep are known as hypnotics (some drugs act as sedatives in small amounts and as hypnotics in large amounts). The barbiturates, such as phenobarbital, are the best known sedatives and are also widely used as hypnotics. Other effective sedatives include paraldehyde and chloral hydrate. Sedatives are useful in the treatment of any condition in which rest and relaxation are important to recovery. Some sedatives are also useful in treatment of convulsive disorders or epilepsy and in counteracting the effect of convulsion-producing drugs. They are used to calm patients before childbirth or surgery. Restlessness in invalids, profound grief in adults, and overexcitement in children can be controlled by medically supervised sedation. Because many sedatives are habit-forming, they should be used with caution.

calm·a·tive

(kahl'mă-tiv),
Calming, quieting; allaying excitement; denoting such an agent.

calmative

(kä′mə-tĭv, kăl′mə-)
adj.
Having relaxing or pacifying properties; sedative.
n.
A sedative.
An agent used to control and/or sedate an unruly or hostile group of people, or used in a hostage situation

calm·a·tive

(kawl'mă-tiv)
A substance that produces a sedative or tranquilizing effect.
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References in periodicals archive ?
For example, chemical irritants such as CS or pepper spray, traditionally used in situations requiring crowd control, may be replaced by new developments in calmative agents.
Calmative agents, sticky foams, and malodorants continue to provide new effects that would benefit SOF counterterrorist applications.
Research on calmatives was discontinued for several years in the early 1990s because of fears that the weapons violated existing international law.
One Pentagon document, produced after a JNLWD-led joint US and British seminar on calmatives in urban warfare, called on the United States to "continue current efforts to develop and execute a public information campaign plan." This and other documents show an almost Orwellian obsession with language and led to debates on whether to call them "nonlethal" or "less than lethal." Some in the military have even tossed around the term "weapons of mass protection." This obsession with terminology has a lot to do with the fact that the Pentagon's two arguments for the legality of calmatives are essentially semantic.
The first argument involves reclassifying calmatives as a riot-control agent.
The second Pentagon argument for the legality of calmatives involves the definition of war under existing international law.
The Advantages and Limitations of Calmatives for Use As a Non-Lethal Technique examines the viability of using various psychopharmaceutical agents in a number of military and civilian contexts.
This idea, as preposterous as it might sound, is suggested in this government-funded calmatives report.
Examples of potential use environments for calmative drugs include "a group of hungry refugees who are excited over the distribution of food and unwilling to wait patiently," "a prison setting," an "agitated population," and "hostage situations."
Calmatives and the ADS are neither designed nor intended to be used as force multipliers; they aim rather at reducing civilian casualties.
Putting aside the question about whether some nonlethal weapons such as calmatives may be lawfully used in armed conflict or law enforcement, (30) the only remaining question is whether nonlethal weapons in general are a just and lawful means to wage war, or whether any medicalized weapons would cause superfluous injury and unnecessary suffering.
(36) It was concerned not so much with the harm that calmatives may cause as with the likelihood that any permissible chemical weapon, no matter how nonlethal, opens a door that will eventually lead nations to build chemical weapons of mass destruction.