calmative

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sedative

 [sed´ah-tiv]
1. allaying irritability, excitement, or nervousness.
2. an agent that does this. The usual mode of action is depression of the central nervous system, which tends to cause lassitude and reduced mental activity. Sedatives are distinct from tranquilizers, which also have a calming effect but unlike sedatives usually do not suppress bodily reactions. Sedatives may be classified according to the organ most affected, such as cardiac, gastric, and so on. Called also calmative.



The degree of relaxation produced varies with the kind of sedative, the dose, the means of administration, and the mental state of the patient. By causing relaxation, a sedative may help a patient go to sleep, but it does not put him to sleep. Medicines that induce sleep are known as hypnotics (some drugs act as sedatives in small amounts and as hypnotics in large amounts). The barbiturates, such as phenobarbital, are the best known sedatives and are also widely used as hypnotics. Other effective sedatives include paraldehyde and chloral hydrate. Sedatives are useful in the treatment of any condition in which rest and relaxation are important to recovery. Some sedatives are also useful in treatment of convulsive disorders or epilepsy and in counteracting the effect of convulsion-producing drugs. They are used to calm patients before childbirth or surgery. Restlessness in invalids, profound grief in adults, and overexcitement in children can be controlled by medically supervised sedation. Because many sedatives are habit-forming, they should be used with caution.

calm·a·tive

(kahl'mă-tiv),
Calming, quieting; allaying excitement; denoting such an agent.

calmative

(kä′mə-tĭv, kăl′mə-)
adj.
Having relaxing or pacifying properties; sedative.
n.
A sedative.

calmative

[kä′mətiv]
having a calming or quieting effect.
An agent used to control and/or sedate an unruly or hostile group of people, or used in a hostage situation

calm·a·tive

(kawl'mă-tiv)
A substance that produces a sedative or tranquilizing effect.

calmative,

n a substance that gently induces rest.

calmative

1. sedative; allaying excitement.
2. an agent having such effects.
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References in periodicals archive ?
For example, chemical irritants such as CS or pepper spray, traditionally used in situations requiring crowd control, may be replaced by new developments in calmative agents.
Calmative agents, sticky foams, and malodorants continue to provide new effects that would benefit SOF counterterrorist applications.
The second Pentagon argument for the legality of calmatives involves the definition of war under existing international law.
And the kind of ambiguous, low-intensity conflict that took place in the Persian Gulf and Mogadishu is just what is depicted in the various scenarios envisioned by military planners laying out appropriate uses for calmatives.
If we fight Saddam, there is a high probability this is going to take place in Baghdad," says Alexander, who helped compile a recent report by the National Academy of Sciences that endorsed further work developing calmatives.
The official, who asked not to be identified, defended the development of calmatives for law enforcement uses but was surprised when told that the military had produced a mortar round capable of delivering a chemical payload.
In some ways, the military's development of calmatives is part of a larger, disturbing expansion of the country's biological warfare capability.
Examples of potential use environments for calmative drugs include "a group of hungry refugees who are excited over the distribution of food and unwilling to wait patiently," "a prison setting," an "agitated population," and "hostage situations.
Calmatives and the ADS are neither designed nor intended to be used as force multipliers; they aim rather at reducing civilian casualties.
Putting aside the question about whether some nonlethal weapons such as calmatives may be lawfully used in armed conflict or law enforcement, (30) the only remaining question is whether nonlethal weapons in general are a just and lawful means to wage war, or whether any medicalized weapons would cause superfluous injury and unnecessary suffering.
36) It was concerned not so much with the harm that calmatives may cause as with the likelihood that any permissible chemical weapon, no matter how nonlethal, opens a door that will eventually lead nations to build chemical weapons of mass destruction.
Like many of the pitfalls and dangers associated with the development of nonlethal weaponry, this claim, too, remains unresolved until calmatives and millimeter wave weapons are used under battlefield conditions.