calmative


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sedative

 [sed´ah-tiv]
1. allaying irritability, excitement, or nervousness.
2. an agent that does this. The usual mode of action is depression of the central nervous system, which tends to cause lassitude and reduced mental activity. Sedatives are distinct from tranquilizers, which also have a calming effect but unlike sedatives usually do not suppress bodily reactions. Sedatives may be classified according to the organ most affected, such as cardiac, gastric, and so on. Called also calmative.



The degree of relaxation produced varies with the kind of sedative, the dose, the means of administration, and the mental state of the patient. By causing relaxation, a sedative may help a patient go to sleep, but it does not put him to sleep. Medicines that induce sleep are known as hypnotics (some drugs act as sedatives in small amounts and as hypnotics in large amounts). The barbiturates, such as phenobarbital, are the best known sedatives and are also widely used as hypnotics. Other effective sedatives include paraldehyde and chloral hydrate. Sedatives are useful in the treatment of any condition in which rest and relaxation are important to recovery. Some sedatives are also useful in treatment of convulsive disorders or epilepsy and in counteracting the effect of convulsion-producing drugs. They are used to calm patients before childbirth or surgery. Restlessness in invalids, profound grief in adults, and overexcitement in children can be controlled by medically supervised sedation. Because many sedatives are habit-forming, they should be used with caution.

calm·a·tive

(kahl'mă-tiv),
Calming, quieting; allaying excitement; denoting such an agent.

calmative

(kä′mə-tĭv, kăl′mə-)
adj.
Having relaxing or pacifying properties; sedative.
n.
A sedative.
An agent used to control and/or sedate an unruly or hostile group of people, or used in a hostage situation

calm·a·tive

(kawl'mă-tiv)
A substance that produces a sedative or tranquilizing effect.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Chemical calmatives delivered as an aerosol render subjects unconscious by depressing neurological functions.
Murphy's calmative, "this endless series of renovations" (Proust 16), protects against "a greater terror" than "the thought of separation," the fear "that to the pain of separation will succeed indifference" (Proust 13-4), Murphy's "self-immersed indifference" (Murphy 168).
For example, chemical irritants such as CS or pepper spray, traditionally used in situations requiring crowd control, may be replaced by new developments in calmative agents.
Calmatives. A class of NL technology that has been banned by the Department of Defense is calmatives.
And the kind of ambiguous, low-intensity conflict that took place in the Persian Gulf and Mogadishu is just what is depicted in the various scenarios envisioned by military planners laying out appropriate uses for calmatives. One hypothetical scenario for calmative use cited by the Pentagon even involves hungry civilians rioting at a food distribution center.
Examples of potential use environments for calmative drugs include "a group of hungry refugees who are excited over the distribution of food and unwilling to wait patiently," "a prison setting," an "agitated population," and "hostage situations."
'I only know the city of my childhood', says Beckett in The Calmative (62).
Or in the story entitled The Calmative, the cyclist who crosses the landscape of the city from East to West, riding his bicycle while reading a newspaper.
JNLWP has planned computer simulations of the offensive use of calmative agents, contracted with a major US military supplier to develop an overhead-exploding chemical riot control mortar round, and field-tested new non-lethal weapons (but not biological ones) on humans in Kosovo.
This takes us chronologically from the pieces that appeared in transition in 1929, analysed with some of the 'waspishness and wit' Pilling sees as being Beckett's own characteristics when reviewing, to The Calmative (written in 1946) 'the first Beckett text to realize the Beckettian ambition [...] "Here form is content, content is form"' (p.
The narrator of The Calmative, for example, refers rather proudly to this inaugurative moment of banishment when he announces, at the opening of his story, 'I'll tell myself a story, I'll try and tell myself another story, to try and calm myself, and it's there I feel I'll be old' (N,p.51).