callus

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callus

 [kal´us]
1. localized hyperplasia of the horny layer of the epidermis due to pressure or friction.
2. an unorganized network of woven bone formed about the ends of a broken bone; it is absorbed as repair is completed (provisional callus), and ultimately replaced by true bone (definitive callus).
A fracture with callus formation (arrow) is demonstrated corresponding to the base of the second metatarsal. From Thrall and Ziessman, 2001.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

cal·lus

(kal'ŭs), Avoid substituting the adjective callous for this noun. Avoid substituting the nonword calloused for the past participle callused.
1. Synonym(s): callosity
2. A composite mass of tissue that forms at a fracture site to establish continuity between the bone ends; it is composed initially of uncallused fibrous tissue and cartilage, and ultimately of bone. Synonym(s): fracture callus
[L. hard skin]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

callus

(kăl′əs)
n. pl. cal·luses
a. A localized thickening and enlargement of the horny layer of the skin. Also called callosity.
b. The hard bony tissue that develops around the ends of a fractured bone during healing.
intr.v. cal·lused, cal·lusing, cal·luses
To form or develop such hardened tissue. See Usage Note at callous.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

callus

Botany
Undifferentiated plant tissue produced at wound edge, callus tissue can be grown in vitro and induced to differentiate by varying the ratio of the hormones auxin and cytokinin in the medium.
 
Dermatology
Callosity, tyloma—A focus of hyperkeratotic skin secondary to repeated friction or pressure.
 
Orthopaedics
A mass of indurated bony trabeculae and cartilage formed by osteoblasts early in healing fractures.
 
Podiatry
A focus of indurated hyperkeratotic skin with a smooth centre, which is usually avascular, caused by rubbing or pressure; typically seen on the plantar aspect beneath the metatarsal head, as well as on the heel and Achilles tendon.  

Aetiology
Increased intermittent pressure on the skin; abnormal varus or valgus of foot leading to uneven weight distribution; local bone defect (plantar flexed ray, heel spur), long metatarsal, extrinsic pressure (improper footwear); surgical scars or lacerations.
 
Management
Trimming of the hyperkeratosis to the central core, soaking (e.g., epsom salts), and shaved regularly; to redistribute weight-bearing, a full-sole orthotic, footwear change and a metatarsal pad or hammer-toe crest pad if needed.

Prevention
Properly fitted shoes.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

callus

Callosity, tyloma Dermatology Localized hyperkeratosis of skin 2º to repeated friction or pressure Orthopedics A mass of indurated bony trabeculae and cartilage formed by osteoblasts early in healing fractures
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cal·lus

(kal'ŭs)
1. Synonym(s): callosity.
2. A composite mass of tissue that forms at a fracture site to establish continuity between the bone ends; it is composed initially of uncallused fibrous tissue and cartilage, and ultimately of bone.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

callus

(kal'us) [L., hardened skin]
Enlarge picture
CALLUS: (on the weight-bearing portion of the foot)
1. A circumscribed thickening and hypertrophy of the horny layer of the skin. It may be oval or elongated, gray or brown, slightly elevated, with a smooth burnished surface. It appears on the flexor surfaces of hands and feet and is caused by friction, pressure, or other irritation. See: illustration Synonym: callosity

Treatment

Salicylic acid or careful shaving will remove the callosity temporarily. Removal is made permanent only by elimination of the cause.

2. The osseous material woven between the ends of a fractured bone that is ultimately replaced by true bone during healing. See: porosis

definitive callus

The exudate found between two ends of a fractured bone that develops into true bone.

provisional callus

A temporary deposit between the ends of a fractured bone that is reabsorbed when true bone develops.
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners

callus

1. A collection of partly calcified tissue, formed in the blood clot around the site of a healing fracture. Callus is readily visible on X-ray and indicates that healing is under way.
2. A skin thickening (see CALLOSITY).
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

callus

a mass of immature plant cells which can differentiate into mature tissues, depending upon the relative concentrations of plant growth hormones present. Callus can develop from EXPLANTS in laboratory tissue culture experiments but also occurs naturally at the end of cut or wounded surfaces of shoots and roots.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Callus

Thickened skin due to chronic rubbing or irritation.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

cal·lus

(kal'ŭs)
1. Synonym(s): callosity.
2. A composite mass of tissue that forms at a fracture site to establish continuity between the bone ends.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
In the next attempt, callusing was tried from hypocotyl explants in
best result for callusing was obtained with 0.5 mg/l of NAA and 0.5 mg/l
result for callusing was obtained with 0.2 mg/l of NAA and 5 mg/l of BA.
callusing was obtained from 1 mg/l of 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/l KIN
The percentage of explants callusing on average varied from 13 to 93%, with Lebsock showing the highest callus induction rate on 2.0 mg [L.sup.-1] dicamba medium, and Munich showing the least on 2.5 mg [L.sup.-1] picloram.
The overall effects of the cultivar, GR, and its concentration on proportion of explants callusing, calli showing shoot buds, and plantlets regenerated were studied by taking one parameter and grouping the other two and arc presented in the tables and Fig.
Of the various auxins tested IBA at different concentrations induced rapid, maximum callusing percentage, healthiest invariably greener and more granular callus from leaf explant compared to IAA, NAA and 2, 4-D when supplied at the same concentrations.
Auxin at different concentrations when supplied in combination with BAP (Table 1) did not induced any significant increases in callusing percentage or degree of callusing when compared to auxin alone.
When the basal media was supplied with 10g/l of sucrose the percentage of leaves callused, the degree of callusing and induced callus appearance were significantly better than at 20 or 30g sucrose in both half and full MS basal medium strengths.