SFU grading of hydronephrosis SFU grade Ultrasound findings 0 Normal kidney (resolved antenatal hydronephrosis) 1 Pyelectasis 2 Pyelectasis with dilation of 1 or more major calyces (caliectasis
) 3 Pyelectasis with dilation of all 3 major calyces 4 Pyelectasis with parenchymal thinning compared to contralateral kidney SFU: Society for Fetal Urology.
Radiological imaging findings of RMC are nonspecific and usually manifest as an infiltrative renal mass with necrosis, caliectasis
, lymphadenopathy, and heterogeneous contrast enhancement due to hemorrhage and necrosis.
Bilateral renal ultrasound showed increased renal parenchymal echogenicity bilaterally, mild bilateral caliectasis
, small amount of ascites, and bilateral pleural effusions.
Other findings were focal caliectasis
in two patients, parenchymal and ureteric calcification and ureteric calcification, ureteric stricture and infundibular stenosis leading to phantom calyx and caseous abdominal lymph node seen in one patient each.
Three patients with severe caliectasis
and low renal function underwent surgery despite mild hydronephrosis.
Renal ultrasound was categorized as abnormal if it showed hydronephrosis and/or caliectasis
, or if there was renal size discrepancy greater than 10%, findings of a duplicated collecting system, or urethral thickening, urethral dilatation, or bladder abnormalities.
Other ultrasound findings that are indications for a VCUG are the presence of caliectasis
and an anteroposterior pelvic diameter greater than 15 mm (6,11).
A left retrograde pyelogram (RGP) showed gross upper pole caliectasis
with pelvic staghorn calculus.
Radiologic Tests with UTI Abbreviation Test Problem Detected VCUG Voiding Cystourethrogram Vesicoureteral reflux Bladder contour Voiding dysfunction Posterior urethra IVP Intravenous Pyelogram Parenchymal scars Caliectasis
Function of renal unit Obstruction Polycystic kidney Congenital disorders RUS Renal Ultrasound Obstructions Renal size and contour Structural abnormalities in urinary tract Renal calculi Polycystic kidney DMSA Dimercaptosuccinic acid Acute pyelonephritis Integrity of renal parenchyma (renal scarring) Kidney function Note.
(4) Infundibular strictures can lead to localized caliectasis
or incomplete opacification of the calyx (Phantom calyx).
Tri-phasic CT remains the mainstay imaging study for cross-sectional imaging in renal TB, which can easily detect uneven caliectasis
, calcifications, or urothelial thickening.
Indication: Robotic-assisted ureterocalicostomy (RAUC) is a potential option in patients with UPJO and significant lower pole caliectasis
, patients with failed pyeloplasty and a minimal pelvis, or patients with an exaggerated intrarenal pelvis.