Formation of kidney stones (calculogenesis
) is a complex and multifactorial process including intrinsic (such as age, sex, and heredity) and extrinsic factors such as geography, climate, dietary, mineral composition, and water intake .
The involvement of parathyroid hormone and renal tubular acidification defect in calculogenesis
has not yet investigated properly.
The mineral composition of salivary calculi is different from that of biliary and urinary stones,5 and contrary to nephrocalcinosis and uroliths formation, the effect of hypercalcemia on the major salivary glands seems quite weak.3 Furthermore, Sherman et al5 found no correlation between water hardness and salivary calculi in England and concluded that local factors as yet unknown are likely to be important in salivary calculogenesis