calculi


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calculus

 [kal´ku-lus] (pl. cal´culi) (L.)
an abnormal concretion, usually composed of mineral salts, occurring within the body, chiefly in hollow organs or their passages. Called also stone. See also kidney stone and gallstone. adj., adj cal´culous.
biliary calculus gallstone.
bladder calculus vesical calculus.
bronchial calculus broncholith.
calcium oxalate calculus oxalate calculus.
dental calculus a hard, stonelike concretion, varying in color from creamy yellow to black, that forms on the teeth or dental prostheses through calcification of dental plaque; it begins as a yellowish film formed of calcium phosphate and carbonate, food particles, and other organic matter that is deposited on the teeth by the saliva. It should be removed regularly by a dentist or dental hygienist; if neglected, it can cause bacteria to lodge between the gums and the teeth, causing gum infection, dental caries, loosening of the teeth, and other disorders. Called also tartar.
gastric calculus gastrolith.
intestinal calculus enterolith.
lung calculus a hard mass or concretion formed in the bronchi around a small center of inorganic material, or from calcified portions of lung tissue or adjacent lymph nodes. Called also pneumolith.
mammary calculus a concretion in one of the lactiferous ducts.
nasal calculus rhinolith.
oxalate calculus a hard urinary calculus of calcium oxalate; some are covered with minute sharp spines that may abrade the renal pelvic epithelium, and others are smooth. Called also calcium oxalate calculus.
phosphate calculus a urinary calculus composed of a phosphate along with calcium oxalate and ammonium urate; it may be hard, soft, or friable, and so large that it may fill the renal pelvis and calices.
prostatic calculus a concretion formed in the prostate, chiefly of calcium carbonate and phosphate. Called also prostatolith.
renal calculus kidney stone.
staghorn calculus a urinary calculus, usually a phosphate calculus, found in the renal pelvis and shaped like the antlers of a stag because it extends into multiple calices.
urate calculus uric acid calculus.
urethral calculus a urinary calculus in the urethra; symptoms vary according to the patient's sex and the site of lodgment.
uric acid calculus a hard, yellow or reddish-yellow urinary calculus formed from uric acid.
urinary calculus a calculus in any part of the urinary tract; it is vesical when lodged in the bladder and renal (see kidney stone) when in the renal pelvis. Common types named for their primary components are oxalate calculi, phosphate calculi, and uric acid calculi. Called also urolith.
uterine calculus any kind of concretion in the uterus, such as a calcified myoma. Called also hysterolith and uterolith.
vesical calculus a urinary calculus in the urinary bladder. Called also bladder calculus.

cal·cu·li

(kal'kyū-lī),
Plural of calculus.

calculi

Plural of calculus, see there.

cal·cu·li

(kal'kyū-lī)
Plural of calculus.

Calculi (singular, calculus)

Mineral deposits that can form a blockage in the urinary system.
Mentioned in: Urinary Incontinence

Patient discussion about calculi

Q. Why do i get kidney stones? I am 38 and have had three stones pass so far. Is it the coffee, the meat, the stress, or the damned DNA?! My uncle is in his 50s and has passed over 30 stones!

A. Kidney stones are very common and even without the genetic or familial background people tend to get them. Of course, the more family predisposition you have, the higher are your chances of developing them, which is probably why you did. Also, a diet rich with dairy and calcium can cause your body to store excess calcium, that tends to calcify and create stones. Not drinking enough fluid is also one of the reasons.

Q. how do i cure tonsil stones (tonsiloth)?

A. There are very little literature about this subject, but I heard about treatment in which the crypts (deep and narrow grooves on the tongue in which the stones form) are burned with laser.

As far as I know these stones don't cause damage by themselves so it's not such a common treatment.

You may read more here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonsillolith

Q. Would kidney stones affect a PSA reading? Would drinking lots of grapefruit juice affect a PSA reading? My husband's PSA reading jumped from a 4.2 to a 17 in @ 2 years' time. How can that be? This man takes all sorts of supplements and really watches his diet. He also takes good care of his body, and does NOT look or act 68.

A. You should get your parathyroid gland checked out. Your calcium level might be causing the kidney stones.

More discussions about calculi
References in periodicals archive ?
The holmium laser is very effective on all types of calculi (Shroff et al., 1996).
Step three adapts the translation * : [Lambda.sub.Nu] [right arrow] [Lambda.sub.ml] to the new calculi. The straight-forward choice is to leave the translation as is, adding a line for let.
First, I need to explain how the [unkeyable]-calculus succeeds in this respect, while CCS and similar concurrency calculi fall short.
Of 29 patients with renal calculi 25 patients achieved 100% clearance with single puncture in first attempt, 2 required re look mini PCNL on POD3 and achieved 100% clearance subsequently and 2 patients were subjected to ESWL due to calculi migration to superior calyx and failed subsequently giving an overall success rate of 93.1%.
Ninety-two consecutive patients (52 male, 40 female) who underwent an abdominal CT that detected urinary calculi between January 2015 and June 2015 were prospectively enrolled.
Cui, "Comparison of YAG laser lithotripsy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in treatment of ureteral calculi: a meta-analysis," The Journal of Urology, vol.
The patient subsequently underwent a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and holmium laser (200-micron fiber, 15-50 Hz, 0.2-0.8 J) lithotripsy of multiple prostatic calculi. The fragments were removed via a cystoscopic grasper and a Boston Scientific 1.9 French Zero-Tip basket.
Taking CT KUB as a gold standard, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of urine analysis for diagnosing renal tract calculi were calculated using the standard formulae.
Salivary stasis and ductal inflammation promote aggregation of mineralized debris to form nidus, which ultimately leads to the formation of calculi.
Proximal stones were 4.7 times more likely to require intervention than distal calculi (OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.09-0.49).