calcium oxalate


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calcium

 (Ca) [kal´se-um]
a chemical element, atomic number 20, atomic weight 40.08. (See Appendix 6.) Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. In combination with phosphorus it forms calcium phosphate, the dense, hard material of the bones and teeth. It is an important cation in intracellular and extracellular fluid and is essential to the normal clotting of blood, the maintenance of a normal heartbeat, and the initiation of neuromuscular and metabolic activities.

Within the body fluids calcium exists in three forms. Protein-bound calcium accounts for about 47 per cent of the calcium in plasma; most of it in this form is bound to albumin. Another 47 per cent of plasma calcium is ionized. About 6 per cent is complexed with phosphate, citrate, and other anions.

Ionized calcium is physiologically active. One of its most important physiological functions is control of the permeability of cell membranes. Parathyroid hormone, which causes transfer of exchangeable calcium from bone into the blood stream, maintains calcium homeostasis by preventing either calcium deficit or excess.

Hypercalcemia: This is when the level of serum calcium rises above normal; neuromuscular activity begins to diminish. Symptoms include lethargy, muscle weakness (which, as the level of calcium increases, can progress to depressed reflexes and hypotonic muscles), constipation, mental confusion, and coma. The heartbeat also slows, which potentiates the effects of digitalis.

Hypocalcemia: This is a serum level of calcium that is below normal; it is manifested by increased neuromuscular irritability. When there is a deficit of ionized calcium, the nerve cells become more permeable, allowing leakage of sodium and potassium from the cells. This produces excitation of the nerve fibers and triggers uncontrollable activity of the skeletal muscles. Hence, as the calcium level continues to drop, the patient begins to experience muscle twitching and cramping, grimacing, and carpopedal spasm, which can quickly progress to tetany, laryngospasm, convulsions, cardiac arrhythmias, and eventually to respiratory and cardiac arrest. Relatively early signs of hypocalcemia are a positive trousseau's sign and a positive chvostek's sign.

Dietary sources of calcium include dairy products (such as milk and cheese), soybeans, fortified orange juice, dark green leafy vegetables (such as mustard greens and broccoli), sardines, clams, and oysters. The recommended dietary allowance of calcium for children aged 4 to 8 is 800 mg, and that for women aged 50 to 70 is 1200 mg. (See tables in the Appendices for recommended dietary allowances across the life span.) It is difficult to meet these requirements without including milk or milk products in the daily diet. The most familiar calcium deficiency disease is rickets, in which the bones and teeth soften. However, it is believed that a large number of people suffer from subclinical calcium deficiency because of poor eating habits. Since calcium is essential to the formation and maintenance of strong bones, an adequate intake is important in the prevention of osteoporosis.
calcium acetate the calcium salt of acetic acid; administered orally as a source of calcium and as a phosphate binder, such as in patients with end-stage renal disease. Also used as a pharmaceutical buffering agent.
calcium carbonate an insoluble salt occurring naturally in bone, shells, and chalk; used as an antacid, calcium supplement, and phosphate binder, and for treatment of osteoporosis.
calcium channel blocker (calcium channel blocking agent) a drug such as nifedipine, diltiazem, or verapamil that selectively blocks the influx of calcium ions through a calcium channel of cardiac muscle and smooth muscle cells; used in the treatment of Prinzmetal's angina, chronic stable angina, and cardiac arrhythmias. Calcium channel blocking agents act to control arrhythmias by slowing the rate of sinoatrial node discharge and the conduction velocity through the atrioventricular node. They act in vasospastic angina to relax and prevent coronary artery spasm. The mechanism of action in classical angina is a lowering of myocardial oxygen utilization by dilating peripheral arteries and thereby reducing total peripheral resistance and the work of the heart.
 Physiologic activity of calcium channel blockers. (Data from Hardman J. and Limbird L., editors: Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed., New York, McGraw-Hill, 1996; and the National Institutes of Health: The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, NIH Pub. No. 98-4080, Washington, DC, GPO, 1998.) From Edmunds and Mayhew, 2000.
calcium chloride a salt used in solution to restore electrolyte balance, treat hypocalcemia, and act as a treatment adjunct in cardiac arrest and in magnesium poisoning.
calcium citrate a salt used as a calcium replenisher; also used in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in renal osteodystrophy.
calcium glubionate a calcium replenisher, used as a nutritional supplement and for the treatment of hypocalcemia; administered orally.
calcium gluceptate a calcium salt administered intramuscularly or intravenously in the prevention and treatment of hypocalcemia and as an electrolyte replenisher.
calcium gluconate a calcium salt administered intravenously or orally in the treatment and prevention of hypercalcemia and as a nutritional supplement. It is also administered by injection as a treatment adjunct in cardiac arrest and in the treatment of hyperkalemia.
calcium hydroxide an astringent compound used topically in solution or lotions.
calcium lactate a calcium replenisher, administered orally in the treatment and prevention of hypocalcemia and as a nutritional supplement.
calcium oxalate a salt of oxalic acid, which in excess in the urine may lead to formation of oxalate urinary calculi.
calcium oxide lime (def. 1).
calcium pantothenate a calcium salt of the dextrorotatory isomer of the B vitamin pantothenic acid; used as a nutritional supplement. It is also available as racemic calcium pantothenate, which is a mixture of the dextrorotatory and levorotatory isomeric forms.
calcium phosphate a salt containing calcium and the phosphate radical; dibasic and tribasic calcium phosphate are used as sources of calcium.
calcium polycarbophil a hydrophilic agent used as a bulk laxative.
calcium propionate a salt used as an antifungal preservative in foods and as a topical antifungal agent.
calcium pyrophosphate the pyrophosphate salt of calcium, used as a polishing agent in dentifrices. Crystals of the dihydrate form occur in the joints in calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease.
calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease an acute or chronic inflammatory arthropathy caused by deposition of crystals of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in the joints and synovial fluid and chondrocalcinosis. Clinically, it may resemble numerous other connective tissue diseases such as arthritis and gout, or it may be asymptomatic. Acute attacks are sometimes called pseudogout.
calcium sulfate a compound of calcium and sulfate, occurring as gypsum or as plaster of paris.

cal·ci·um ox·a·late

found as sediment in urine and in urinary calculi. Toxic end product of ethylene glycol consumption.

calcium oxalate

A simple chemical that may crystalise in renal tubules and a common component of kidney stones. It is more commonly present as a monohydrate or CaC2O4•H2O, whewellite, than as a dihrate or CaC2O4•2H2O, weddellite, which appears in normal urine and in tissues after exposure to ethylene glycol.

Source
Tropical house plants, rhubarb, Oxalis, Araceae, taro, kiwifruit, tea leaves, agaves, alocasia and spinach.
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CLASSIC DIHYDRATE CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALS: (Orig. mag. ×400)
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CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALS IN URINE: (Orig. mag. ×400)

calcium oxalate

CaC2O4, a compound containing calcium, present in urine in crystalline form. It is a constituent of some kidney stones. See: illustration
CAS # 25454-23-3
illustration
See also: calcium

calcium oxalate

A calcium salt occurring in the urine, sometimes in such high concentration as to form urinary stones (calculi).
References in periodicals archive ?
Obesity also causes an alteration in acid-base metabolism, resulting in a lower urinary pH and increased risk of uric acid stone.5 Urolithiasis with higher proportion of calcium oxalate stones in the present study could be related to multiple risk factors, such as excess calorie intake, fruit, vegetable rich in oxalates (Tomato, cabbage and cucumber, etc.), chocolate, tea, coffee, smoking and low intake of fluids, accompanied by the peculiar climatic conditions.7 Uric acid calculi are associated with red-meat protein and low urine pH; and the red meat consumption (Camel, cow, sheep and goat) is prevalent in all over Saudi Arabia.5 As noticed urinary tract infections, which is more common in women, plays an important role in phosphate stone formation.8
Prescription diets won't dissolve calcium oxalate crystals or stones, but they can help maintain an ideal pH in the urine.
Crowther A (2005) Re-viewing raphides: issues with the identification and interpretation of calcium oxalate crystals in microfossil assemblages.
Fasudil prevents calcium oxalate crystal deposit and renalfibrogenesis in glyoxylate-induced nephrolithic mice.
Enrichment was performed in Schlegel AB liquid medium [25] modified for the isolation of oxalotrophic bacteria with 16 g/L of insoluble calcium oxalate monohydrate, Ca[(COO).sub.2]-[H.sub.2]O, as the sole carbon source (good energy efficiency [26]).
* If you have calcium oxalate stones and your urinary oxalates are high, limit your consumption of oxalate-containing foods, such as chocolate, strawberries, rhubarb, spinach, nuts, soy, and French fries.
Cell membrane phospholipids, as part of organic matrix, promote the formation of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones [41].
The precursor lesion of ACD-RCC is still a subject of ongoing investigation, but researchers have strongly suggested its relation to calcium oxalate deposition and cyst development in ESRD.
Compared with calcium oxalate stone formers, patients with cystinuria are more likely to have abnormal serum creatinine levels and are at higher risk for nephrectomy (Assimos, Leslie, Ng, Streem, & Hart, 2002).
Studies also revealed that high concentration of calcium, oxalate, or calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals could stimulate OPN expression in renal tubular cells [4, 31, 32].