calcium channel blocker

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something that blocks or obstructs a passage or activity; see also antagonist and blocking agent.
β-blocker (beta-blocker) beta-adrenergic blocking agent.
calcium channel blocker calcium channel blocking agent.
potassium channel blocker potassium channel blocking agent.
sodium channel blocker sodium channel blocking agent.


 (Ca) [kal´se-um]
a chemical element, atomic number 20, atomic weight 40.08. (See Appendix 6.) Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. In combination with phosphorus it forms calcium phosphate, the dense, hard material of the bones and teeth. It is an important cation in intracellular and extracellular fluid and is essential to the normal clotting of blood, the maintenance of a normal heartbeat, and the initiation of neuromuscular and metabolic activities.

Within the body fluids calcium exists in three forms. Protein-bound calcium accounts for about 47 per cent of the calcium in plasma; most of it in this form is bound to albumin. Another 47 per cent of plasma calcium is ionized. About 6 per cent is complexed with phosphate, citrate, and other anions.

Ionized calcium is physiologically active. One of its most important physiological functions is control of the permeability of cell membranes. Parathyroid hormone, which causes transfer of exchangeable calcium from bone into the blood stream, maintains calcium homeostasis by preventing either calcium deficit or excess.

Hypercalcemia: This is when the level of serum calcium rises above normal; neuromuscular activity begins to diminish. Symptoms include lethargy, muscle weakness (which, as the level of calcium increases, can progress to depressed reflexes and hypotonic muscles), constipation, mental confusion, and coma. The heartbeat also slows, which potentiates the effects of digitalis.

Hypocalcemia: This is a serum level of calcium that is below normal; it is manifested by increased neuromuscular irritability. When there is a deficit of ionized calcium, the nerve cells become more permeable, allowing leakage of sodium and potassium from the cells. This produces excitation of the nerve fibers and triggers uncontrollable activity of the skeletal muscles. Hence, as the calcium level continues to drop, the patient begins to experience muscle twitching and cramping, grimacing, and carpopedal spasm, which can quickly progress to tetany, laryngospasm, convulsions, cardiac arrhythmias, and eventually to respiratory and cardiac arrest. Relatively early signs of hypocalcemia are a positive trousseau's sign and a positive chvostek's sign.

Dietary sources of calcium include dairy products (such as milk and cheese), soybeans, fortified orange juice, dark green leafy vegetables (such as mustard greens and broccoli), sardines, clams, and oysters. The recommended dietary allowance of calcium for children aged 4 to 8 is 800 mg, and that for women aged 50 to 70 is 1200 mg. (See tables in the Appendices for recommended dietary allowances across the life span.) It is difficult to meet these requirements without including milk or milk products in the daily diet. The most familiar calcium deficiency disease is rickets, in which the bones and teeth soften. However, it is believed that a large number of people suffer from subclinical calcium deficiency because of poor eating habits. Since calcium is essential to the formation and maintenance of strong bones, an adequate intake is important in the prevention of osteoporosis.
calcium acetate the calcium salt of acetic acid; administered orally as a source of calcium and as a phosphate binder, such as in patients with end-stage renal disease. Also used as a pharmaceutical buffering agent.
calcium carbonate an insoluble salt occurring naturally in bone, shells, and chalk; used as an antacid, calcium supplement, and phosphate binder, and for treatment of osteoporosis.
calcium channel blocker (calcium channel blocking agent) a drug such as nifedipine, diltiazem, or verapamil that selectively blocks the influx of calcium ions through a calcium channel of cardiac muscle and smooth muscle cells; used in the treatment of Prinzmetal's angina, chronic stable angina, and cardiac arrhythmias. Calcium channel blocking agents act to control arrhythmias by slowing the rate of sinoatrial node discharge and the conduction velocity through the atrioventricular node. They act in vasospastic angina to relax and prevent coronary artery spasm. The mechanism of action in classical angina is a lowering of myocardial oxygen utilization by dilating peripheral arteries and thereby reducing total peripheral resistance and the work of the heart.
 Physiologic activity of calcium channel blockers. (Data from Hardman J. and Limbird L., editors: Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed., New York, McGraw-Hill, 1996; and the National Institutes of Health: The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, NIH Pub. No. 98-4080, Washington, DC, GPO, 1998.) From Edmunds and Mayhew, 2000.
calcium chloride a salt used in solution to restore electrolyte balance, treat hypocalcemia, and act as a treatment adjunct in cardiac arrest and in magnesium poisoning.
calcium citrate a salt used as a calcium replenisher; also used in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in renal osteodystrophy.
calcium glubionate a calcium replenisher, used as a nutritional supplement and for the treatment of hypocalcemia; administered orally.
calcium gluceptate a calcium salt administered intramuscularly or intravenously in the prevention and treatment of hypocalcemia and as an electrolyte replenisher.
calcium gluconate a calcium salt administered intravenously or orally in the treatment and prevention of hypercalcemia and as a nutritional supplement. It is also administered by injection as a treatment adjunct in cardiac arrest and in the treatment of hyperkalemia.
calcium hydroxide an astringent compound used topically in solution or lotions.
calcium lactate a calcium replenisher, administered orally in the treatment and prevention of hypocalcemia and as a nutritional supplement.
calcium oxalate a salt of oxalic acid, which in excess in the urine may lead to formation of oxalate urinary calculi.
calcium oxide lime (def. 1).
calcium pantothenate a calcium salt of the dextrorotatory isomer of the B vitamin pantothenic acid; used as a nutritional supplement. It is also available as racemic calcium pantothenate, which is a mixture of the dextrorotatory and levorotatory isomeric forms.
calcium phosphate a salt containing calcium and the phosphate radical; dibasic and tribasic calcium phosphate are used as sources of calcium.
calcium polycarbophil a hydrophilic agent used as a bulk laxative.
calcium propionate a salt used as an antifungal preservative in foods and as a topical antifungal agent.
calcium pyrophosphate the pyrophosphate salt of calcium, used as a polishing agent in dentifrices. Crystals of the dihydrate form occur in the joints in calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease.
calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease an acute or chronic inflammatory arthropathy caused by deposition of crystals of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in the joints and synovial fluid and chondrocalcinosis. Clinically, it may resemble numerous other connective tissue diseases such as arthritis and gout, or it may be asymptomatic. Acute attacks are sometimes called pseudogout.
calcium sulfate a compound of calcium and sulfate, occurring as gypsum or as plaster of paris.

cal·ci·um chan·nel block·er

a class of drugs with the capacity to prevent calcium ions from passing through biologic membranes. These agents are used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, and cardiac arrhythmias.

calcium channel blocker

Any of a class of drugs that inhibit the movement of calcium ions across the cell membranes of cardiac and smooth muscle and are used to treat cardiovascular disorders.

calcium channel blocker

Calcium channel antagonist Pharmacology An agent that blocks entry of Ca2+ into cells, thereby preventing cell dealth and loss of function due to excess Ca2+; CCBs are used to manage heart conditions and stroke, may be useful for Alzheimer's disease

cal·ci·um chan·nel block·er

(kalsē-ŭm chanĕl blokĕr)
A class of cardiovascular drugs with the capacity to prevent calcium ions from passing through biologic membranes (e.g., cardiac muscles and blood vessels). These agents are used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris,and cardiac arrhythmias; examples includenifedipine, diltiazem, and verapamil.
Synonym(s): slow channel-blocking agent.

Calcium channel blocker

A drug that relaxes blood vessels and lowers blood pressure.

cal·ci·um chan·nel block·er

(kalsē-ŭm chanĕl blokĕr)
Drug that stops calcium ions from passing through biologic membranes; used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, and cardiac arrhythmias.
References in periodicals archive ?
For disease burden, recipients with the highest disease burden had the highest percentage of noncompliance for antianginals, antihypertensives, antiarrhythmics, beta blockers, calcium blockers, cardiotonics, and diuretics; recipients with the lowest disease burden were the most noncompliant for antihyperlipidemics.
In women, significant associations were found between injurious falls and reduced iliopsoas muscle strength, impaired gait, a small mid-arm circumference, impaired orthostatic reaction, short step length, the use of more than four medications and the use of long-acting benzodiazepines, calcium blockers (and also separately: the use of verapamil, nifedipine or diltiazem), drugs for improving peripheral circulation, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic drugs.
By inference, many patients and physicians expanded this admonition to include long-acting calcium blockers as well.
The first claim about heart attacks was based on the finding that, among a group of hypertension in Seattle who had heart attacks, the use of calcium blockers was 60 percent more common than among a group of hypertensives who had not had heart attacks.
Procurement Acquisition: Antibacterials for Systemic Use Cpv Code 33651100-9, Medicinal Products for the Respiratory System Cpv Code 33670000-7, 33622700-3 Cpv Code Calcium Blockers, Nervous System Drugs Cpv Code 33661000-1, Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Cpv Code 33692210 -2, Various Medicinal Cpv Code 33690000-3, 33616000-1 Vitamins Cpv Code, According to Tender Documents.
Contract award: framework agreement for the supply diuretics, calcium blockers, med.
ACE inhibitors, proton pump inhibitors and calcium blockers are among the top categories of generics in the U.S., according to IMS Health.
Tenders are invited for Supply Diuretics, Calcium Blockers, Med Used in Cardiology, Antihypertensives
Tenders are invited for Purchase Antithrombotic, Calcium Blockers
PRIOR TOTAL THERAPEUTIC CLASS (in millions) YEAR MARKET Cholesterol reducers $14,701 +12% 6.4% Proton pump inhibitors 12,620 +2% 5.6% SSRIs/SNRIs 11,153 +9% 4.9% Antipsychotics 8,564 +16% 3.8% Erythropoietins 7,870 +14% 3.5% Seizure disorders 7,613 +23% 3.4% COX-2 inhibitors 5,577 +10% 2.5% Calcium blockers 4,353 -1% 1.9% Bisphosphonates 3,380 +17% 1.5% Antihistamines 3,329 -22% 1.5% * For the 12 months through June 2004.
SALES % CHANGE THERAPEUTIC CLASS (in billions) (year-over-year) Cholesterol reducers $9.0 + 24.9% SSRI/SNRI 8.3 + 9.2% Proton pump inhibitors 8.3 + 25.8% Cytostatics 5.3 + 7.5% Calcium blockers 4.5 - 1.8% Antipsychotics 4.0 + 27.6% Erythropoietins 3.9 + 26.8% COX-2 inhibitors 3.7 + 105.4% Seizure disorders 3.5 + 28.3% Ace inhibitors 3.5 + 4.6% Source: IMS Health.
Noninjectable codeine and combinations rank first in cash prescriptions, calcium blockers first in third-party plans and systemic antiarthritic drugs first in Medicaid prescriptions.