Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.
Related to calcaneum: calcaneal spur


, gen. and pl.


(kal-kā'nē-ŭs, -kā'nē-ī),
1. The largest of the tarsal bones; it forms the heel and articulates with the cuboid anteriorly and the talus superiorly. Synonym(s): calcaneal bone, calcaneum, heel bone, os calcis
2. Synonym(s): talipes calcaneus
[L. the heel (another form of calcaneum)]

calcaneum, calcaneus

Etymology: L, calcaneum, heel
the heel bone. The largest of the tarsal bones, it articulates proximally with the talus and distally with the cuboid. Also called the os calcis. calcaneal, calcanean, adj.
enlarge picture


, pl. calcanei (kal-kā'nē-ŭs, -ē-ī)
1. [TA] The largest of the tarsal bones; it forms the heel and articulates with the cuboid anteriorly and the talus above.
Synonym(s): calcaneum, heel bone.
2. Synonym(s): talipes calcaneus.
[L. the heel (another form of calcaneum)]


; calcaneum; heel bone; os calcis largest bone in the rearfoot, forming the heel, articulating at its superior surface with inferior aspect of the talus, and anteriorly with the posterior aspect of cuboid; plantar aspect gives origin to plantar fascia; middle one-third of posterior facet receives insertion of the deep fibres of tendo Achilles; has two centres of ossification – the primary centre within the body of calcaneum, and secondary centre towards posterior aspect of the calcaneum – that unite at approximately 12 years of age (see Table 1)
Table 1: Ossification and epiphyses fusion dates
BonePrimary centreSecondary centreEpiphyseal fusion
Tibia (diaphysis)7th week
Tibia (upper epiphysis)At birth20th year
Tibia (lower epiphyses)2nd year18th year
Fibula (diaphysis)8th week
Fibula (upper epiphysis)4th year25th year
Fibula (lower epiphysis)2nd year20th year
Calcaneum (body)6th month
Calcaneal epiphysis6th–10th month12th–15th years
Talus7th month
CuboidAt birth
Lateral cuneiform1st year
Medial cuneiform3rd year
Intermediate cuneiform4th year
Navicular4th year
First metatarsal shaft8th–9th week
First metatarsal base3rd year17th–20th year
Lesser metatarsal shafts8th–9th week
Proximal phalanges; shafts12th–14th week
Proximal phalanges; bases3rd–6th years17th–18th years
Intermediate phalanges; shafts4th–9th month
Intermediate phalanges, bases; Distal phalanx hallux3rd–6th year17th–18th year
Distal phalanx; shafts8th week
Distal phalanx, bases6th year17th–18th year


see calcaneus.

calcaneus, calcaneum

the irregular quadrangular bone at the back of the tarsus. One of the two tarsal bones in the proximal row of bones of the hock joint and, because of its calcaneal tuber and the muscles attached to it, acts as a lever to extend the hock joint. Called also heel bone, os calcis, and fibular tarsal bone. See also Table 10.
References in periodicals archive ?
200 human calcaneum dried bones obtained from Department of Anatomy & Department of Forensic Medicine of Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Science, Patna; Vardhman Institute of Medical Sciences, Pawapuri; Nalanda & Darbhanga Medical College, Laheriasarai; and also from undergraduate students.
For intra-articular fractures the calcaneum impacts the ground and a primary fracture line develops and runs from plantar-medial to dorso-lateral.
Comparison of BMD at calcaneum in Indian children (37) with data from healthy Caucasian children in the United Kingdom acquired with the same model of densitometer (34) showed that LSES subjects had lower values and USES subjects had higher values.
The belly and its tendon passed between gastrocnemius and the soleus muscles from lateral to medial side and fused with the crural fascia just above the calcaneum.
Material: tibia, fibula, astragulus, calcaneum, tarsals, metatarsals, vertebrae, three ribs, and part of a scapula (UMMP 37169) collected in 1872 by Orman Tuttle and donated to UMMP in 1960.
All species are digitigrade with nonretractile claws, although the granulated pad or calcaneum extends the full length of the carpus and tarsus to the ankle and heel, which sometimes contact the ground when the animal is moving slowly.
As the calcaneum everts markedly during weight bearing, the lateral border of the foot becomes shorter than the medial border, which is increased due to the protruding head of the talus medially (13).
The retrocalcaneal bursa is located between the Achilles tendon insertion and posterior part of the calcaneum.
23) On the other hand, the height of the scaphoid tuberosity is considered to be a good indicator of pronosupination of the foot, since the changes in scaphoid height are related to positional changes of the calcaneum, subastragaline joint, and the mediotarsian joint.
Locality Catalog Number Skeletal Element 11A CMN 48628 right third metacarpal 11A CMN 48646 second phalanx digit 4 pes 11A CMN 24192 molariform 11A CMN 48661 left upper caniniform 11A CMN 22567 proximal phalanx 11A CMN 26193 proximal half ungual digit 3 manus 11A CMN 48449 second phalanx manus 11A CMN 24194 proximal right calcaneum 11A CMN 48656 proximal right calcaneum 22 CMN 14528 molariform 22 CMN 19203 upper fifth molariform 24 CMN 14883 second phalanx 29 CMN 14882 proximal half ungual 42 CMN 33247 molariform 44 CMN 43457 second phalanx 66 CMN 25148 left astragalus 66 CMN 31146 proximal phalanx 66 CMN 24215 left lower caniniform 66 CMN 23042 proximal phalanx digit 3 manus 84 CMN 31778 left upper caniniform 144 CMN 28550 second phalanx digit 3 manus
Likewise soft tissue release with medial open wedge osteotomy of calcaneum and insertion of bone wedge is also described.