Congenital arthrogryposis, fasciculations, foot deformities with calcaneovalgus
, pes planus and pes valgus (Figure 2(c)), contractures, hip dysplasia, or hyperlordosis may be evident .
Distal arthrogryposis (DA) is an inherited primary malformation involving multiple congenital contractures of the upper and lower limbs, for example, camptodactyly, absent/hypoplastic flexion creases, overriding fingers, talipes equinovarus, calcaneovalgus
deformities, and vertical talus.
Skeletal malformations reported in this disorder, include congenital hip dislocation, calcaneovalgus
deformity, joint hyperflexation, punctate mineralization, scoliosis and kyphosis.
The deformity may be considered cured when there is no adduction or inversion deformity, when there is a hollow on the dorsum of the foot in the position previously occupied by the head of the talus, passive movement to the full calcaneovalgus
position, and when the child is able to evert and dorsiflex the foot voluntarily to about a right angle.
Cases with only minor congenital anomalies, such as facial asymmetry (code Q67.0) or talipes or pes calcaneovalgus
(Q66.4) were excluded from the study, following the EUROCAT exclusion list (EUROCAT 2009).
A deformity of the lower leg and ankle joint called talipes equinovarus (club foot) and talipes calcaneovalgus
(foot is turned outward).
A morphologically normal, surprisingly well-preserved dead fetus with moderate areas of cutaneous desquamation, features of oligohydramnios (meconium-stained integument and calcaneovalgus
), weighing 3 250 g, was extracted (Fig.
Examination of the lower extremities revealed distal atrophy, left equinovarus deformity with forefoot adduction, and a right calcaneovalgus