One study found that 91% of syndesmotic injuries involved at least 1 of the lateral collateral ligaments (anterior talofibular ligament [ATFL], calcaneofibular
ligament [CFL], or posterior talofibular ligament [PTFL]).
The other lateral ligaments are the calcaneofibular
ligament, connecting the fibula to the calcaneus, and the posterior talofibular ligament.
In the clinical setting, lateralization of the force vector in the acquired flatfoot deformity was demonstrated to cause hindfoot impingement including talofibular, talocalcaneal, and calcaneofibular
and subsequent stress fracture of the distal fibula [2, 3, 20].
Forces that can influence talocalcaneal joint are calcaneofibular
ligament, the superior peroneal retinaculum (calcaneal fibular retinaculum), the peroneal tendon sheaths, and the posterior talocalcaneal ligament.
One left calcaneus displayed a minimum of five axial cuts across the superior aspect of the lateral surface of the body that is likely to have cut through the distal attachment of the calcaneofibular
ligament, and there were also two slightly oblique cuts running across the medial surface which would have involved the long tendon of the flexor hallucis longus.
Among the procedures described in the literature, it is pertinent to note the reconstruction of various tendinous and ligamentous structures, such as joint ligaments of the foot (anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular
) (Pagenstert et al., 2005) and flexor tendons; using its distal segment as osteotendinous grafts.
There was pain on palpation on both sides of the Achilles tendon as well as over the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular
There are several causes for pain in the lateral aspect of the foot, including dislocation or subluxation of the peroneal tendon, injury, to the talofibular ligament or calcaneofibular
ligament, or fractures in the fifth metatarsal, anterior process of the calcaneus, or cuboid .
MRI showed complete avulsion injury of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and the calcaneofibular
ligament (CFL) and partial tears of the posterior talofibular ligament, the anterior tibiofibular ligament, and tearing of the interosseous membrane.
The anterior drawer test should be performed in plantar flexion and dorsiflexion to evaluate the competency of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and calcaneofibular
ligament (CFL) respectively, along with inversion and eversion stress testing.
[2,3] This abrupt change in kinesiology of the talocrural joint sometimes exceeds the elastic property of the static restraints of the anterior and posterior talofibular and calcaneofibular
The same procedure was repeated on the calcaneofibular
ligament and posterior talofibular ligament.