American and Italian studies found the caffeine, coffee oils, kahweol, cafestol
and antioxidants protect the organ.
In this new study, the researchers wanted to see if cafestol
would help prevent or delay the onset of Type-2 diabetes in mice.
Coffee contains caffeine and salts of palmitic acid (kahweol and cafestol
palmitate), which are absorbed by the rectal veins.
32 (2) Coffee can enhance endogenous defense systems by inducing a complex of nuclear clear factor erythroid-2-like 2 factor (Nrf2), and the cafestol
of the coffee can increase the endogenous antioxidant too.
The chemical constituents of arabica coffee involve phenolic compounds and their derivatives (such as chlorogenic acids), alkaloids (specially caffeine), diterpenoid alcohols (such as cafestol
and kahweol), carbohydrates, lipids, and volatile and heterocyclic compounds .
In cell cultures and animal studies, two diterpenes called cafestol
and kahweol inhibit certain carcinogens and reduce concentrations of liver DNA adducts (pieces of DNA bound to cancer-causing chemicals).
Among them, are phenols, including chlorogenic and caffeic acid, lactones, diterpenes, including cafestol
and kahweol, niacin, and the vitamin B3 precursor trigonelline.
Coffee made other ways, including French press and espresso, has higher levels of cafestol
, a coffee-specific diterpene, induces apoptosis in renal carcinoma Caki cells through down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins and Akt phosphorylation.
46) Pre-treatment with cafestol
and kahweol protected mice from carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity by inhibiting cytochrome CYP 2E1, the enzyme responsible for carbon tetrachloride bioactivation.
The coffee components kahweol and cafestol
induce gammaglutamylcysteine synthetase, the rate limiting enzyme of chemoprotective glutathione synthesis, in several organs of the rat.
Two substances in coffee -- kahweol and cafestol
-- raise cholesterol levels.