(70) Galliard's enzyme mentioned above, (58) the cPLA2
reported by Senda et al.
Although calcium is known to be an absolute requirement for the activity of both sPLA2 and cPLA2
, its role in the 2 activations is different.
PLA2R1 tiene una cascada de senalizacion intracelular donde se han dilucidado componentes como la p38MAPK (del ingles mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase), e incluso, lejos de ser curioso y no coincidente, las cPLA2
. PLA2R1 tambien funciona como un receptor de aclaramiento (del ingles clearance) para las PLA2, en particular parece ser importante esto dada la expresion en macrofago reticulo-endoteliales.
Calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 (cPLA2
) and iPLA2 use phosphatidylcholines as substrate to form arachidonic acid, a precursor of several lipid mediators, and lysophosphatidylcholines, a metabolite that can be further degraded to glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, or lysophosphatidic acid and choline [22, 23].
Yang et al., "Neuroprotection of early and short-time applying atorvastatin in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia: down-regulated 12/15-LOX, p38MAPK and cPLA2
expression, ameliorated BBB permeability," Brain Research, vol.
Calpactin complexed to annexin II is known to interact with the C-terminus of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and inhibits cPLA2
activity thus reducing inflammatory responses from the release of arachidonic acid .
IL-1 increases RANKL expression in osteoblasts by stimulating PG[E.sub.2] production through cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2
) and COX2-dependent mechanisms .
5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO), leukotriene (LT), cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2
), arachidonic acid (AA), 5-LO-activatingprotein (FLAP), multidrugresistance protein-1 (MRP1), endothelial cells (ECs), and smooth muscle cells (SMCs).
Rapoport, "Brain lipid metabolism in the cPLA2
knockout mouse," Journal of Lipid Research, vol.
Initially, it was experimentally shown that ceramide stimulates [Ca.sup.2+]-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2
) and generates cyclooxygenase 2- (Cox2-) mediated prostaglandins in response to TNFa .
This leads to the increased expression of inflammatory target proteins such as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2
) and proinflammatory mediators such as the TNF-a, IL-1, and IL-6.