The c-Rel Transcription Factor and B-cell Proliferation: a Deal with the Devil.
Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus C-rel Transgenic Mice Develop Mammary Tumors.
TCR and CD28 stimulation results in activation and nuclear entry of c-Rel. In contrast, Foxo protein that are constitutively present in the nucleus are phosphorylated and inactivated by the PI3K/Akt signalling axis downstream of TCR.
Grumont et al., "c-Rel is required for the development of thymic Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells," Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.
As an example, the observation in primary mouse keratinocytes that c-Rel acts downstream of [DELTA]Np63[alpha] in modulating keratinocyte growth regulation led to a further novel observation that c-Rel levels are enhanced in primary HNSCC of humans and links this protein accumulation to altered NF[kappa]B/c-Rel activity in human head and neck squamous cell cancer cells .
Varigos et al., "The transcription factors c-rel and RelA control epidermal development and homeostasis in embryonic and adult skin via distinct mechanisms," Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.
Dependence on nuclear abundance of Rel A, NF-kappaB1, and c-Rel
No supershifting occurred, so band elimination was the indicator for the presence of c-Rel in the HMEC-1 extracts (Fig.
Band 2 composition, appears to be more complex, however, with RelA, p50, and c-Rel present at all time points.
These NF-[kappa]B/Rel subunits are p65/Rel-A, c-Rel, Rel-B, p105/NF-[kappa]B1 (which can be processed to p50), and p100/NF-[kappa]B2 (which can be processed to p52).
californicus induces the nuclear binding activity of a well-known transcription factor NF-[kappa]B, including one complex with c-Rel and some unidentified subunits.
Indeed, recent gene knockout studies provided convincing evidence that a deficiency in B cells occurred when the genes nfkb1 (p50/p105), nfkb2 (p52/p100), and c-rel