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Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate in a long-acting poloxamer 407 gel formulation administered to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
Postoperatively single IM doses of either butorphanol tartrate 0.73 mg (0.5mg base), 1.46 mg (1 mg base), or 2.92mg (2 mg base) or morphine sulfate 5 mg or 10 mg were administered.
Analgesic effects of carprofen and liposome-encapsulated butorphanol tartrate in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.
Once the periocular tissues were well demarcated (13 days after admission), the kestrel was premedicated with butorphanol tartrate (1 mg/kg IM) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg IM) for surgical debridement of the devitalized right-sided periocular tissues with enucleation.
(1) Butorphanol tartrate (Torbugesic, Fort Dodge Animal Health, Fort Dodge, IA, USA) has been shown to act by binding [kappa] opioid receptors in the peripheral and central nervous systems and mimicking the activities of endogenous opioids.
African grey parrots were found to have an increased threshold to an electric stimulus after butorphanol was administered at a dose of 2 mg/kg IMT; however, in another study, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots receiving the same dose of intramuscular butorphanol tartrate did not demonstrate a change in foot withdrawal at 30 minutes after drug administration.
The goals of this study in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were to 1) evaluate the pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate after IV, IM, and oral (PO) administration, and 2) determine the bioavailability of butorphanol tartrate after oral administration.
For the IV study, anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane (delivered in oxygen at 1 L/min via facemask) administered at 5% and 2%, respectively, to facilitate administration of butorphanol tartrate 1% (5 mg/kg; Torbugesic) in the basilic vein.
A standard curve of butorphanol tartrate (Cerilliant Corp, Round Rock, TX, USA), which bracketed the range of concentration, was prepared by spiking 100 [micro]L of blank parrot plasma.
(6-9) Butorphanol tartrate was found to provide analgesia in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis); for preoperative or postoperative analgesia, the recommended dose was 1-3 mg/kg IM.
Butorphanol tartrate is a synthetically derived partial agonist opioid.
Birds were randomly assigned to receive butorphanol tartrate (2 mg/kg in the pectoral muscle; Torbugesic, Fort Dodge, Fort Dodge, IA, USA) either 20 minutes before induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane (B-S group, n = 11) or immediately after the anesthetic period (S group, n = 11).