Group A: SAB with 2.5 ml of 0.5% Bupivacaine hydrochloride
*Group BD ( n = 30): Received epidural study solution of 38 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine hydrochloride
+ 1 ml of 100 [micro]g dexmedetomidine + 1 ml of normal saline *Group BF ( n = 30): Received epidural study solution of 38 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine hydrochloride
+ 2 ml of 100 [micro]g fentanyl keeping the total volume of 40 ml in both the groups.
Once in the recovery room, the participant was given a low dose (0.25%) of bupivacaine hydrochloride
(10 ml) or normal saline (10 ml) as prepared by the pharmacy department.
intraarticularly at the conclusion of arthroscopy.
Various local anaesthetics have been used to produce subarachnoid block, of which popularly used one is Bupivacaine hydrochloride
The patients received either 15-20 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride
(Group I, n = 30) or 15-20 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride
plus 0.5 mg (0.5 mL) butorphanol tartrate (Group II, n = 30).
Levobupivacaine hydrochloride is the levo stereoisomer form of the racemic form of bupivacaine hydrochloride
. Levobupivacaine has demonstrated anaesthetic potency similar to bupivacaine, superior pharmacokinetic profile, lesser cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity than bupivacaine and better perioperative haemodynamic stability.
Both LEVO-ANAWIN (Levobupivacaine solution) & ANAWIN (Bupivacaine hydrochloride
) are preservative free solution, 0.5% in concentration each, 10 mL of ampoule & 20 mL ampoule respectively, Made in India by Neon Laboratories Limited.
All patients received drug volume of 3 ml containing 2.5 ml (12.5 mg) hyperbaric bupivacaine hydrochloride
. The study groups received dexmedetomidine 5 [micro]g (group BD1) or 10 [micro]g (BD2) diluted to 0.5ml with 0.9% saline, added to bupivacaine in the same syringe.