NMO: Neuromyelitis optica EAMG: Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis AQP4: Aquaporin 4 MG: Myasthenia gravis AChR: Acetylcholine receptor CNS: Central nervous system IgG: Immunoglobulin G EMG: Electromyography SFEMG: Single fiber electromyography BBB: Blood-brain barrier EAE: Experimental autoimmune encephalitis BgT: Bungarotoxin
SNEs: Sensory needle electrodes CMAP: Compound muscle action potential CN: Concentric electromyography needle SFAPs: Single fiber action potentials RNS: Repetitive nerve stimulation TGF[beta]: Transforming growth factor fi MCP-1: Monocyte chemoattractant protein CXCR3: C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 IP-10: Interferon y inducible protein 10.
Oswald, "Solution structure of neuronal bungarotoxin
determined by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy: calculation of tertiary structure using systematic homologous model building, dynamical simulated annealing, and restrained molecular dynamics," Biochemistry, vol.
M: marker; Con: control group; I/R: I/R group; EA: electroacupuncture group; PNU: PNU282987 group; [alpha]-BGT: [alpha]- bungarotoxin
group; the abbreviations in Figure 2 are the same (* p < 0.05 compared with the I/R group; [??] p < 0.05 compared with the EA group).
Ach--acetylcholine, AchR--acetylcholine receptor, [alpha]-BgTx--[alpha]- bungarotoxin
, [[sup.125]I]-[alpha]-BgTx--[[sup.125]I-labeled [alpha]-bungarotoxin, CA--calpastatin, CMAP--compound muscle action potential, CMS--congenital myasthenic syndrome, dsRNA--double-stranded RNA, EMG--electromyography, EP--endplate, EPC--endplate current, EPP--endplate potentials, GBHA--glyoxal bis-(2-hydroxyanil), HEK--human embryonic kidney, MEPC miniature endplate current, MEPP--miniature endplate potential, MG--myasthenia gravis, NMJ--neuromuscular junction, RNAi--RNA interference, SCS--slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome, shRNA--short hairpin RNA, WT--wild-type
11:45 THE MUTAGENESIS OF ALPHA BUNGAROTOXIN
TO FACILITATE THE CLEAVAGE OF A POLYHISTIDINE PURIFICATION TAG
Among many proteins brought to the Facility for study were snake bungarotoxin
and scytalone dehydratase.
Differential effects of snake venom phospholipase A2 neurotoxin (beta- bungarotoxin
) and enzyme (Najanajaatra) on protein kinases.
In the mammalian enteric epithelium, nitric oxide production is stimulated by alpha bungarotoxin
(BG)-sensitive acetylcholine receptors (type 1 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, 6).
In krait bite cases, inhibition of neurally mediated release of norepinephrine by bungarotoxins
results in sympathetic overactivity with or without decreased parasympathetic activity, leading to AD manifesting as HTN, whereas in viper bite cases, AD manifesting as HTN is attributed to cardiotoxins, which have the potential to act at or via autonomic synapses (4-9).
Neurologists, pharmacologists, toxicologists, and other medical specialists and scientists from around the world also discuss the use of other neurotoxins like tetanus toxin, bungarotoxins
, conotoxins, and spider and wasp neurotoxins.