(1) The most common ocular toxicity induced by antimalarials presents as bull's eye maculopathy
. (4) When retinal toxicity develops, it leads to irreversible and sometimes progressive loss of visual acuity, color vision, and central visual field defects.
Didanosine, which was one of the earliest nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, resulted in retinal toxicity in patients initiated on ART,  and ritonavir-and-efavirenz-induced retinal pigment eptheliopathy (RPE) initiating a 'bull's eye maculopathy
' have also been reported in the literature.
Describing his Bull's Eye Maculopathy
as 'living in a small fuzzy world of about 30 to 50 yards', Osborne said that he could not wait to encourage disabled children to take up the sport, adding that he hopes to raise the profile of blind and disabled golf and inspire other blind and visually-impaired people.
Mr Osborne was diagnosed with Bull's Eye Maculopathy
, a genetic form of the more common Age Related Maculopathy, in 2003.