Dewald, "Upper extremity motor impairments and microstructural changes in bulbospinal
pathways in chronic hemiparetic stroke," Frontiers in Neurology, vol.
Preclinical studies have shown that the ICPM effect is mediated by brain stem and bulbospinal
So ciliary pain is referred to areas associated with cervical segments which connect with the superior cervical ganglion and the somatic outflow from which is represented by bulbospinal
root of trigeminal and upper cervical nerves.
Schmidt, "Propriospinal neurons are sufficient for bulbospinal
transmission of the locomotor command signal in the neonatal rat spinal cord," The Journal of Physiology, vol.
Ogawa, "In vivo recordings of bulbospinal
excitation in adult mouse forelimb motoneurons," Journal of Neurophysiology, vol.
These include bilateral Bell's palsy, diabetes, Guillain-Barre syndrome, viral infections, syphilis, basal skull fractures, pregnancy, brainstem encephalitis, cryptococcal meningitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, bulbospinal
muscular atrophy and borreliosis.
Mukai et al., "Severity of X-linked recessive bulbospinal
neuronopathy correlates with size of the tandem CAG repeat in androgen receptor gene," Annals of Neurology, vol.
The author was initially given two synonyms for SBMA by a physician: Kennedy disease and X-linked bulbospinal
In addition, during the early paralytic stages of EAE, damage to the bulbospinal
serotonergic neurons occurs, whereas neurologic recovery is associated with reestablishment of spinal serotonergic transmission.
Alexanders (type 2), which primarily has an adult onset with the presence of muscle weakness, hyperreflexia, bulbar or pseudobulbar symptoms, signal abnormalities and atrophy observed in an MRI of the medulla oblongata and upper cervical spinal cord
The fatal sequelae of this type of bite are bulbospinal
paralysis, including respiratory paralysis.
Another potential contribution to the pain-generating mechanism is the role of descending bulbospinal