Sensitive periods for the androgen-induced masculinization of the rat spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus
Variance of patients in terms of etiological factor, neurological level, lesion severity, presence of TPS and BCR, frequency of storage, and emptying dysfunction and type of detrusor n = 59 Etiological factor (Traumatic/ 54/5 Non-traumatic) Neurological level (Cervical/Thoracic/ 13/30/16 Lumbosacral) Lesion severity (Complete/Incomplete) 34/25 TPS (Present/Absent) 20/39 BCR (Present/Absent) 50/9 Frequency of storage dysfunction 35 Frequency of emptying dysfunction 56 Type of detrusor (Overactive/ 48/11 Acontractile-underactive) TPS: Toe position sense; BCR: bulbocavernosus
reflex Table 2.
Development of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus
in androgen-insensitive (Tfm) rats.
* Focused neurological examination for S2, 3, 4 reflex arc (anal tone, peri-anal sensation, bulbocavernosus
For example, some groups defined the end of spinal shock as the first few days postinjury when recovery of initial reflexes, such as the bulbocavernosus
reflex, had occurred, other groups as 2 weeks postinjury when recovery of the deep tendon reflexes had occurred, while still other groups defined the end of spinal shock as ~2 months postinjury when recovery of the bladder reflex had occurred.
Table 1 CT Signs of Urethral Injuries in Patients With Pelvic Fractures (46) Patients Patients With Without Associated Associated Urethral Urethral Injuries Injuries CT Signs (n = 17) (n = 30) Distortion or concealment of urogenital diaphragm fat plane 15 (88) 1 (3) Hematoma of ischiocavernosus 15 (88) 5 (17) Distortion or concealment of prostatic contour 10 (59) 2 (7) Distortion or concealment of bulbocavernosus
8 (47) 3 (10) Hematoma of obturator internus 9 (53) 4 (13) Note: Numbers in parentheses are percentages.
The physical exam should include mental and functional status, genital and rectal exam, and a neurologic exam of sacral root integrity (e.g., anal wink, bulbocavernosus
The physical exam should include mental and functional status, a genital and rectal exam, and a neurologic exam of sacral root integrity (such as anal wink or bulbocavernosus
Breedlove (1997a) found seasonal variation in the size of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus
(SNB) a region of the brain which enervates the penis.
The clinician should test sensation in the genital and perineal area, and should check the bulbocavernosus
reflex (Alberson et al., 2012).
The fascia of the bulbocavernosus
and superficial transveralis muscles might need to be reapproximated with individual sutures.
The dorsal artery of the penis was observed to pass coudally through the body of the penis in a groove formed by the right and left bulbocavernosus
muscle after the leaving arteria pudenda interna, and later running along the dorsum penis, each side of the retractor penis muscle.