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the usual form of plague manifestations of which include inflammatory enlargement of the lymphatic glands in the groin, axillae, or other parts.
bubonic plague(bo͞o-bŏn′ĭk, byo͞o-)
A form of infectious plague that is characterized by the formation of buboes and is transmitted to humans principally by the bite of a flea that has bitten an infected rodent, usually a rat.
Epidemiology Y pestis is transmitted by Oriental rat fleas—Xenopsylla cheopis—which bite the rat, ingesting Y pestis; these rapidly reproduce in the flea, forming a ‘plug’ of obstructing bacteria in the flea’s gut, making the flea ravenously hungry and making it go into a feeding frenzy, in which it repeatedly bites the rat and regurgitates Y pestis; once the usual hosts—rats—die, the fleas becomes less discriminating and attack any mammal; in humans, aerosol is the common mode of transmission
Incubation 2–10 days
Mortality Without antibiotics, nearly 100%; with antibiotics, 5%
Medical History The Black Plague of Middle Ages Europe arrived with the Tartars in Sicily in late 1347, reaching Paris by the following winter; within 3–4 years, it had killed 25 million, 30% to 60% of Europe’s population at the time; Yersinia pestis infection of mammalian hosts is attributed to suppression and avoidance of the host’s immune defenses—e.g., phagocytosis and antibody production
bubonic plagueBlack death, black plague Infectious disease A rare bacterial infection due to Yersinia pestis; in its full-blown fulminant form–explosive Y pestis growth–may kill in 24 hrs, by destroying normal tissues; after 3 days of incubation, high fever, black blotchy rashes–DIC plus petechial hemorrhage, delirium; bursting of a bubo–a massively enlarged lymph node–is painful enough to 'raise the dead' Clinical Painful, enlarged lymph nodes, fever, headache, prostration, pneumonia, sepsis Epidemiology Y pestis is transmitted by Oriental rat fleas–Xenopsylla cheopis, which bite the rat, ingesting Y pestis; these rapidly reproduce in the flea, forming a 'plug' of obstructing bacteria in the flea's gut, making the flea ravenously hungry, which goes into a feeding frenzy, repeatingly biting the rat and regurgitating Y pestis; once the usual hosts–rats–die, the fleas becomes less discriminating and attack any mammal; in humans, aerosol is the common mode of transmission Incubation 2-10 days Mortality Without antibiotics, nearly 100%; with antibiotics, 5%. See Yersinia pestis.
bu·bon·ic plague(bū-bon'ik plāg)
The most common form of plague characterized by fever, cutaneous and visceral hemorrhages, and buboes (inflammatory enlargements of lymph nodes draining the bites of infected fleas). Clinical manifestations are caused by the flea-transmitted Yersinia pestis.