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the usual form of plague manifestations of which include inflammatory enlargement of the lymphatic glands in the groin, axillae, or other parts.
bubonic plague(bo͞o-bŏn′ĭk, byo͞o-)
A form of infectious plague that is characterized by the formation of buboes and is transmitted to humans principally by the bite of a flea that has bitten an infected rodent, usually a rat.
Etymology: Gk, boubon, groin; L, plaga, stroke
the most common form of plague. It is characterized by painful buboes in the axilla, groin, or neck; fever often rising to 106° F (41.11° C); prostration with a rapid, thready pulse; hypotension; delirium; and bleeding into the skin from the superficial blood vessels. The symptoms are caused by an endotoxin released by a bacillus, Yersinia pestis, usually introduced into the body by the bite of a rat flea that has bitten an infected rat. Inoculation with plague vaccine confers partial immunity; infection provides lifetime immunity. Treatment includes antibiotics, supportive nursing care, surgical drainage of buboes, isolation, and stringent precautions against spread of the disease. Conditions favor a plague epidemic when a large infected rodent population lives with a large nonimmune human population in a damp, warm climate. Improved sanitary conditions and eradication of rats and other rodent reservoirs of Y. pestis may prevent outbreaks of the disease. Killing the infected rodents, which may include ground squirrels and rabbits, and not the fleas allows a continued threat of human infection. It is a possible agent of bioterrorism if the bacilli are aerosolized and has the highest potential for negative public health. Also called
Usage notes: (informal)black death, black plague. Compare pneumonic plague, septicemic plague. See also bubo, plague, Yersinia pestis.
Epidemiology Y pestis is transmitted by Oriental rat fleas—Xenopsylla cheopis—which bite the rat, ingesting Y pestis; these rapidly reproduce in the flea, forming a ‘plug’ of obstructing bacteria in the flea’s gut, making the flea ravenously hungry and making it go into a feeding frenzy, in which it repeatedly bites the rat and regurgitates Y pestis; once the usual hosts—rats—die, the fleas becomes less discriminating and attack any mammal; in humans, aerosol is the common mode of transmission
Incubation 2–10 days
Mortality Without antibiotics, nearly 100%; with antibiotics, 5%
Medical History The Black Plague of Middle Ages Europe arrived with the Tartars in Sicily in late 1347, reaching Paris by the following winter; within 3–4 years, it had killed 25 million, 30% to 60% of Europe’s population at the time; Yersinia pestis infection of mammalian hosts is attributed to suppression and avoidance of the host’s immune defenses—e.g., phagocytosis and antibody production
bubonic plagueBlack death, black plague Infectious disease A rare bacterial infection due to Yersinia pestis; in its full-blown fulminant form–explosive Y pestis growth–may kill in 24 hrs, by destroying normal tissues; after 3 days of incubation, high fever, black blotchy rashes–DIC plus petechial hemorrhage, delirium; bursting of a bubo–a massively enlarged lymph node–is painful enough to 'raise the dead' Clinical Painful, enlarged lymph nodes, fever, headache, prostration, pneumonia, sepsis Epidemiology Y pestis is transmitted by Oriental rat fleas–Xenopsylla cheopis, which bite the rat, ingesting Y pestis; these rapidly reproduce in the flea, forming a 'plug' of obstructing bacteria in the flea's gut, making the flea ravenously hungry, which goes into a feeding frenzy, repeatingly biting the rat and regurgitating Y pestis; once the usual hosts–rats–die, the fleas becomes less discriminating and attack any mammal; in humans, aerosol is the common mode of transmission Incubation 2-10 days Mortality Without antibiotics, nearly 100%; with antibiotics, 5%. See Yersinia pestis.
bu·bon·ic plague(bū-bon'ik plāg)
The most common form of plague characterized by fever, cutaneous and visceral hemorrhages, and buboes (inflammatory enlargements of lymph nodes draining the bites of infected fleas). Clinical manifestations are caused by the flea-transmitted Yersinia pestis.
bubonic plagueA highly infectious disease caused by the organism Yersinia pestis, spread by rat fleas. There is high fever, severe headache, pain and swelling in the groin, severe TOXAEMIA and mental confusion. Antibiotics are effective.
bubonic plaguesee BLACK DEATH.
characterized by or pertaining to buboes.
a highly contagious and severe disease caused by the bacillus Yersinia pestis carried in infected rats and transmitted to humans by fleas. See also plague.
an epidemic of disease attended by great mortality.
an acute febrile, infectious, highly fatal disease caused by the bacillus Yersinia pestis. It is primarily a disease of rats and other rodents, dogs and cats, and is usually spread to humans by fleas. The more common form of plague is the bubonic. There is also a pneumonic type in humans, which can be spread directly from person to person by droplet infection. The clinical signs in all species are fever, vomiting and enlargement of lymph nodes, the buboes that give the disease its name.
an acute infectious disease of ducks caused by a herpesvirus and characterized by tissue hemorrhages and blood free in body cavities, eruptions on the mucosae of the digestive tract, degeneration of parenchymatous organs and lesions in lymph nodes. Called also duck virus enteritis.
see african horse sickness.
see avian influenza.
see bubonic plague (above).
hematogenous spread of infection to many organs may occur without the formation of buboes; occurs in the cat with pulmonary involvement, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and death.
see swine plague.
bubonic plague in wild animals in uninhabited areas. See also sylvatic plague.