bubonic plague


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Related to bubonic plague: septicemic plague, pneumonic plague

bu·bon·ic plague

the usual form of plague manifestations of which include inflammatory enlargement of the lymphatic glands in the groin, axillae, or other parts.

bubonic plague

(bo͞o-bŏn′ĭk, byo͞o-)
n.
A form of infectious plague that is characterized by the formation of buboes and is transmitted to humans principally by the bite of a flea that has bitten an infected rodent, usually a rat.

bubonic plague

[byo̅o̅bon′ik]
Etymology: Gk, boubon, groin; L, plaga, stroke
the most common form of plague. It is characterized by painful buboes in the axilla, groin, or neck; fever often rising to 106° F (41.11° C); prostration with a rapid, thready pulse; hypotension; delirium; and bleeding into the skin from the superficial blood vessels. The symptoms are caused by an endotoxin released by a bacillus, Yersinia pestis, usually introduced into the body by the bite of a rat flea that has bitten an infected rat. Inoculation with plague vaccine confers partial immunity; infection provides lifetime immunity. Treatment includes antibiotics, supportive nursing care, surgical drainage of buboes, isolation, and stringent precautions against spread of the disease. Conditions favor a plague epidemic when a large infected rodent population lives with a large nonimmune human population in a damp, warm climate. Improved sanitary conditions and eradication of rats and other rodent reservoirs of Y. pestis may prevent outbreaks of the disease. Killing the infected rodents, which may include ground squirrels and rabbits, and not the fleas allows a continued threat of human infection. It is a possible agent of bioterrorism if the bacilli are aerosolized and has the highest potential for negative public health. Also called
Usage notes: (informal)
black death, black plague. Compare pneumonic plague, septicemic plague. See also bubo, plague, Yersinia pestis.
A rare bacterial infection due to Yersinia pestis; in its full-blown fulminant form—explosive Y pestis growth—it may kill in 24 hrs, by destroying normal tissues; after 3 days of incubation, high fever, black blotchy rashes—DIC—plus petechial hemorrhage, delirium; bursting of a bubo—a massively enlarged lymph node—is extremely painful
Epidemiology Y pestis is transmitted by Oriental rat fleas—Xenopsylla cheopis—which bite the rat, ingesting Y pestis; these rapidly reproduce in the flea, forming a ‘plug’ of obstructing bacteria in the flea’s gut, making the flea ravenously hungry and making it go into a feeding frenzy, in which it repeatedly bites the rat and regurgitates Y pestis; once the usual hosts—rats—die, the fleas becomes less discriminating and attack any mammal; in humans, aerosol is the common mode of transmission
Incubation 2–10 days
Mortality Without antibiotics, nearly 100%; with antibiotics, 5%

Medical History The Black Plague of Middle Ages Europe arrived with the Tartars in Sicily in late 1347, reaching Paris by the following winter; within 3–4 years, it had killed 25 million, 30% to 60% of Europe’s population at the time; Yersinia pestis infection of mammalian hosts is attributed to suppression and avoidance of the host’s immune defenses—e.g., phagocytosis and antibody production

bubonic plague

Black death, black plague Infectious disease A rare bacterial infection due to Yersinia pestis; in its full-blown fulminant form–explosive Y pestis growth–may kill in 24 hrs, by destroying normal tissues; after 3 days of incubation, high fever, black blotchy rashes–DIC plus petechial hemorrhage, delirium; bursting of a bubo–a massively enlarged lymph node–is painful enough to 'raise the dead' Clinical Painful, enlarged lymph nodes, fever, headache, prostration, pneumonia, sepsis Epidemiology Y pestis is transmitted by Oriental rat fleas–Xenopsylla cheopis, which bite the rat, ingesting Y pestis; these rapidly reproduce in the flea, forming a 'plug' of obstructing bacteria in the flea's gut, making the flea ravenously hungry, which goes into a feeding frenzy, repeatingly biting the rat and regurgitating Y pestis; once the usual hosts–rats–die, the fleas becomes less discriminating and attack any mammal; in humans, aerosol is the common mode of transmission Incubation 2-10 days Mortality Without antibiotics, nearly 100%; with antibiotics, 5%. See Yersinia pestis.

bu·bon·ic plague

(bū-bon'ik plāg)
The most common form of plague characterized by fever, cutaneous and visceral hemorrhages, and buboes (inflammatory enlargements of lymph nodes draining the bites of infected fleas). Clinical manifestations are caused by the flea-transmitted Yersinia pestis.

bubonic plague

A highly infectious disease caused by the organism Yersinia pestis, spread by rat fleas. There is high fever, severe headache, pain and swelling in the groin, severe TOXAEMIA and mental confusion. Antibiotics are effective.

bubonic plague

see BLACK DEATH.

bubonic

characterized by or pertaining to buboes.

bubonic plague
a highly contagious and severe disease caused by the bacillus Yersinia pestis carried in infected rats and transmitted to humans by fleas. See also plague.

plague

an epidemic of disease attended by great mortality.

bubonic plague
an acute febrile, infectious, highly fatal disease caused by the bacillus Yersinia pestis. It is primarily a disease of rats and other rodents, dogs and cats, and is usually spread to humans by fleas. The more common form of plague is the bubonic. There is also a pneumonic type in humans, which can be spread directly from person to person by droplet infection. The clinical signs in all species are fever, vomiting and enlargement of lymph nodes, the buboes that give the disease its name.
cattle plague
duck plague
an acute infectious disease of ducks caused by a herpesvirus and characterized by tissue hemorrhages and blood free in body cavities, eruptions on the mucosae of the digestive tract, degeneration of parenchymatous organs and lesions in lymph nodes. Called also duck virus enteritis.
equine plague
see african horse sickness.
fowl plague
see avian influenza.
pneumonic plague
see bubonic plague (above).
septicemic plague
hematogenous spread of infection to many organs may occur without the formation of buboes; occurs in the cat with pulmonary involvement, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and death.
swine plague
see swine plague.
sylvatic plague
bubonic plague in wild animals in uninhabited areas. See also sylvatic plague.
References in periodicals archive ?
Primary bubonic plague case-patients more often received effective antibiotics, although the difference was not substantial (bubonic 89%; septicemic 81%; pneumonic 79%).
After an outbreak occurred in Kyrgyzstan, the World Health Organisation's (WHO) epidemic disease expert Eric Bertherat told the BBC: "Because bubonic plague is such a rare event, local medical staff are not prepared to diagnose the disease and treat it appropriately, which means the first patient usually dies without even a diagnostic.
His research focused on the bubonic plague, which was the subject of a fatwa by Saudi cleric Nasir al-Fahd, who said the Prophet would be happy if the plague could be unleashed to wipe out Europe.
Researchers extracted the DNA of the disease bacterium, Yersinia pestis, from the largest teeth in some of the skulls retrieved, and compared it to the strain of bubonic plague preserved there with the one that killed 60 people in Madagascar recently.
BISHKEK, Kyrgyzstan (TAP) -Four people have been hospitalised and 160 quarantined after a 15-year-old boy, Temirbek Isakunov, who ate marmot meat died of the bubonic plague last week, the Kyrgyz Ministry of Health said Wednesday according to AP News.
ByE[currency]KEK (CyHAN)- Kyrgyzstan's health officials are on alert after a local teenager died of bubonic plague caught from eating barbecued marmot, the apparent vector for the deadly disease.
Which animal species carried the fleas responsible for the bubonic plague epidemics of the Middle Ages?
Summary: A seven-year-old girl in Colorado is recovering from bubonic plague.
The Black Death, or bubonic plague, wiped out nearly half of Western Europe's population starting around 1350.
They also learned that the strain is the mother of all modern bubonic plague bacteria.
The opening was quickly followed by news reports of a breakthrough in a cure for the bubonic plague, by scientists at Albany Medical College in New York.
Ugarte says the boy, who had Down syndrome, died of bubonic plague July 26.