brown fat

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fat

 [fat]
1. the adipose tissue of the body.
2. a triglyceride (or triacylglycerol) that is an ester of fatty acids and glycerol. Each fat molecule contains one glycerol residue connected by ester linkages to three fatty acid residues, which may be the same or different. The fatty acids may have no double bonds in the carbon chain (saturated fatty acids), one double bond (monounsaturated), or two or more double bonds (polyunsaturated). Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the body but must be obtained from the diet or from intravenous infusion of lipids.
Saturated and Unsaturated Fats. All of the common unsaturated fatty acids are liquid (oils) at room temperature. Through the process of hydrogenation, hydrogen can be incorporated into certain unsaturated fatty acids so that they are converted into solid fats for cooking purposes. Margarine is an example of the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids into a solid substance.
brown fat a thermogenic type of adipose tissue containing a dark pigment, and arising during embryonic life in certain specific areas in many mammals, including humans (see illustration); it is prominent in the newborn. Called also brown adipose tissue.
Sites of brown fat in the neonate. From McKinney et al., 2000.
neutral fat fat (def. 2).
polyunsaturated fat a fat containing polyunsaturated fatty acids; see also fat.
saturated fat a fat containing saturated fatty acids; see also fat.
unsaturated fat a fat containing unsaturated fatty acids; see also fat.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

brown fat

brown thermogenic tissue composed of cells containing numerous fat droplets and rich in heme-containing cytochromes and mitochondria; lobular masses are found in the interscapular and mediastinal regions, among other locations; although found most commonly in certain hibernating animals, also occurs in pigs, rodents, and human neonates.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

brown fat

n.
One of two types of fatty tissue in mammals, especially in newborn infants and hibernating animals, that is composed of dark-colored cells containing numerous mitochondria and lipids, which are converted into body heat.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
A special form of fat that generates heat by nonshivering thermogenesis, so designated as it is rich in mitochondria, which imparts a brown hue. Brown fat is rich in sympathetic nerve endings and vessels, its metabolic activity and development is regulated by norepinephrine, and it is normally located in the axillary, subscapular, and interscapular regions, around the large thoracoabdominal vessels, heart, kidneys, and adrenal glands; brown fat is increased in Chagas’ disease, CHF, Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy, malignancy, pheochromocytoma, SIDS, and in malnutrition
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

brown fat

Brown adipose tissue A special form of fat that generates heat by nonshivering thermogenesis, so designated as it is rich in mitochondria, which imparts a pardous hue; BF is rich in sympathetic nerve endings and vessels and its metabolic activity and development is regulated by norepinephrine, and it is normally located in the axillary, subscapular, and interscapular regions, around the large thoracoabdominal vessels, heart, kidneys, and adrenal glands; BF is ↑ in Chagas' disease, CHF, Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, malignancy, pheochromocytoma, SIDS, and in malnutrition
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

brown fat

(brown fat)
Adipose tissue located near major vessels that occurs primarily in the full-term newborn, aiding in temperature regulation until shivering is established; it turns white as the infant ages.
Synonym(s): brown adipose tissue, brown adipose, hibernating gland, interscapular gland, interscapular hibernoma, multilocular adipose tissue, multilocular fat.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

brown fat

A kind of animal body fat more readily available for rapid conversion to heat than is normal yellow fat. It is believed that hibernating animals use their brown fat in the recovery from the winter state. Small human babies have deposits of brown fat around the spine.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

brown fat

a special fat layer found between the neck and shoulders of some mammals, e.g. bats and squirrels, whose function is to enable the production of large amounts of heat, particularly after HIBERNATION. The fat is heavily vascularized (see VASCULAR) and has many mitochondria (see MITOCHONDRION), the latter giving it its brown colour due to the presence of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. Heat is released by very rapid fat metabolism (rather than the more normal fatty acid metabolism) and is rapidly transported away via the large vascular system.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Release date- 26072019 - Researchers from the University of Granada have found that, contrary to other studies to date, there is no link between physical activity and better functioning of brown adipose tissue (BAT).
Evidence from immunoblotting studies on uncoupling protein that brown adipose tissue is not present in the domestic pig.
When issued in the U.S., the final patent will protect a human brown adipose tissue differentiated cell derived from an isolated human brown adipose tissue stem cell.
Intracellular conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine is required for the optimal thermogenic function of brown adipose tissue.
In the cold, brown adipose tissue acts like a heat generator, and its activity has a positive effect on the energy balance.
A study with ovariectomized rats indicated a reduction in UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue and decrease in UCP2 expression in white adipose tissue, which may be associated with reduced energy expenditure and consequent increase in body mass (Pedersen et al, 2001).
Two principal types of AT have been described in mammals: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT).
Briefly, the primary brown preadipocytes were isolated from mice interscapular brown adipose tissue and cultured in DMEM/F12 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic for 2 days before being immortalized by retroviral-mediated expression of temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen H-2kb-tsA58.
However, the visualization of hypermetabolic brown adipose tissue (BAT) on FDG-PET/CT is a known cause of both false-positive and false-negative findings.
Based on their location, origin, characterization, and function, adipose tissues are typically classified into white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), beige adipose tissue (beige AT), and marrow adipose tissue (MAT) [6-8].
A 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) performed in order to exclude any extra-adrenal uptake: no significant metabolic activity in the adrenal mass but intense uptake in supra- and subdiaphragmatic brown adipose tissue was detected, likely due to noradrenergic-stimulated glucose uptake (Figure 3).