At least they have time to recover but it is not surprising that, in general, great tits raise just one brood
Distributions of each metric were calculated by pooling all observed zoeae across all broods
. A probability density function was then calculated for each metric by using a band-width determined by Sheather and Jones's (1991) criteria.
Our reduced breeding success estimates could have been a result of methodological differences in counting broods
. Using radio telemetry we were able to locate all marked breeding females, whilst counts using pointing dogs may over-estimate reproductive success of un-marked females.
Burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus) are potentially a model system for the study of the conditions that drive the evolution of brood
While some physiological characters correlate with the morphological characters (Guler, 1999), others such as brood
cycle, are genetically determined (Louveaux, 1973; Strange et al., 2007).
We determined the parentage of 276 nestlings from a total of 77 broods
produced both before and after the experiments started (43 broods
from the reciprocal experiment, 23 from the all-supplemented treatment, and 11 from the communal feeders treatment).
Initiation dates of first clutches for the three females that attempted second broods
were estimated as 7, 5, and 7 June, respectively.
Synchronized generations of three Magicicada species designated as Brood
II reliably emerge every 17 years in a swath of the U.S.
Cicada researchers are using observations from citizen scientists, along with automated devices equipped with GPS, to make more accurate records of Brood
II's emergence than any cicada invasion before.
XIX, a 13-year brood
of periodical cicadas, has the largest distribution of the periodical cicada broods
, being reported from Maryland south to Georgia, westward through Arkansas and easternmost Oklahoma, and north into southern Iowa.
In general, results indicate that parasites may strongly affect reproduction of female mosquitofish by reducing the number of embryos in developing broods
. However, samples were small, so caution should be taken in drawing definitive conclusions without additional work.
The final brood
starved to death after the mother was torn apart.