Even after accurate diagnosis is established, clinical course is quite variable with frequent progression to bronchostenosis. The incidence rate of bronchostenosis may be up to 68% in initial 4 to 6 months of the disease and, in long term, more than 90% of the patients are usually affected [3, 4].
Fibrotic change of the lamina propria as well as healing of mucosal ulceration eventually progresses to bronchostenosis .
Wheeze and stridor maybe the presenting features of bronchostenosis.
If bronchostenosis develops, persistent segmental or lobar collapse (Figure 1), lobar hyperinflation, obstructive pneumonia, and mucoid impaction may be noted .
All subtypes of EBTB are situated between the extreme ends of healing and bronchostenosis and can transform into other subtypes during treatment.
Central bronchostenosis with distal bronchial dilatation can also lead to development of bronchiectasis.
In few of the randomized trials, systemic steroid therapy has improved the endobronchial obstruction due to hilar adenopathy in children [37, 38] but it failed to prevent bronchostenosis in adults .
Interventional Bronchoscopy: Tackling Bronchostenosis. Interventional bronchoscopyis an alternative treatment strategy to surgical resection in the management of stenosis resulting from endobronchial tuberculosis.