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Their effects are described as bronchospasmolytic and secretolytic and are proven by spirometric and body plethysmographic investigations in randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance studies (Gulyas et al, 1997; Hofmann et al?
These effects provide the biochemical basis to explain the secretolytic and bronchospasmolytic properties of H.
[alpha]- and [beta]-hederin that enhance the [[beta].sub.2]AR responsiveness in A549 and HASM cells, respectively, which mediates the secretolytic and bronchospasmolytic effect (Greunke et al., 2015; Sieben et al., 2009).
Internally, the effect is that of a respiratory analeptic and bronchospasmolytic. It should be noted that the effect only sets in at dosages considered toxic.
* Dried ivy extract, thought to work as both a secretolytic and bronchospasmolytic, reduced airway resistance in children by 23.6% compared with placebo (P=.036).
It is the only saponin-containing herbal drug which is considerably used in monotherapy due to expectorant and bronchospasmolytic effects.