bronchospasm


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spasm

 [spazm]
1. a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles.
2. a sudden, transitory constriction of a passage, canal, or orifice; spasms usually occur when the nerves supplying muscles are irritated, and are often accompanied by pain. A vasospasm is a rare type that occurs in a blood vessel. Spasms vary from mild twitches to severe convulsions and may be the symptoms of any number of disorders. Usually, they will cease when the cause is corrected, but sometimes the only treatment is to suppress the symptoms, as in epilepsy.

Clonic Spasms. These are spasms in which contraction and relaxation of the muscle alternate; this is the most common type of spasm and usually is not severe. A typical clonic spasm is the hiccup. Hiccups usually occur when the diaphragm is irritated, as by indigestion, although occasionally they may result from a serious condition such as a brain tumor; they generally disappear by themselves or after a drink of water.



Spasms may be repetitive twitching motions, some of which are called tics. Tics often accompany other types of spasm, as in such diseases as cerebral palsy and sydenham's chorea, and may also be seen in neuralgia. In tic douloureux the nerves of the face are involved.

Habit spasms are a type of repetitive twitching movements that seem purposeless or without a cause; they include twitching of the face, blinking of the eyes, and grimacing. The movements are rapid and always repeated in the same way, unlike the spasms associated with chorea. The motions are carried out automatically in response to a stimulus that once may have existed but no longer does.

In a convulsive spasm the entire body is jerked by sudden violent movements that may involve almost all the muscles. These spasms may last from a fraction of a second to several seconds, or even minutes. (See also convulsion.)
Tonic Spasms. If the contraction of a spasm is sustained or continuing, it is called a tonic or tetanic spasm. These are generally severe because they are caused by diseases that affect the central nervous system or brain, such as tetanus, rabies, and cerebral palsy. Severe tonic spasms can be fatal if not treated promptly; continued spasms can bring on exhaustion or asphyxiation. The treatment varies with the cause; if the disease is caused by a microorganism in the system, as in tetanus, antiserum must be administered immediately. Antibiotics are also used to help curb infection. In many cases tranquilizers, sedatives, and narcotics must be administered to help ease the spasms.
bronchial spasm spasmodic contraction of the muscular coat of the smaller divisions of the bronchi, as occurs in asthma; called also bronchospasm.
clonic spasm a spasm consisting of clonic contractions; see also clonus.
infantile s's (infantile massive s's) (jackknife s's) a syndrome of severe myoclonus appearing in the first 18 months of life, and associated with general cerebral deterioration; it is marked by severe flexion spasms of the head, neck, and trunk and extension of the arms and legs. Called also jackknife seizures.
nodding spasm clonic spasm of the sternomastoid muscles, causing a nodding motion of the head.
saltatory spasm clonic spasms of the muscles of the lower limbs, producing a peculiar jumping or springing action.
tetanic spasm (tonic spasm) physiological tetanus.

bron·cho·spasm

(brong'kō-spazm),
Contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles, causing narrowing of the lumen. Compare: bronchoconstriction.

bronchospasm

(brŏng′kō-spăz′əm)
n.
A contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles, causing them to constrict.

bronchospasm

Spasmodic contraction of bronchial smooth muscle, which occurs in response to the release of histamine and bradykinins.

Aetiology
Asthma, chronic bronchitis, anaphylaxis (peanuts, shellfish and other allergenic foods), bee stings, pilocarpine, beta blockers, cold exposure, general anaesthesia.

bronchospasm

Chest medicine Spasmodic contraction of bronchial smooth muscle, as in asthma. See Asthma, Exercise-induced bronchospasm.

bron·cho·spasm

(brong'kō-spazm)
Contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles, causing narrowing of the lumen and obstructing breathing.

bronchospasm

Tight contraction of the smooth circularly-placed muscles in the walls of the air tubes (bronchi) in the lungs with resulting severe narrowing. Bronchospasm is the main feature of, and cause of the symptoms in, asthma, and is often the result of an allergy.

bron·cho·spasm

(brong'kō-spazm)
Contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles, causing narrowing of the lumen.
References in periodicals archive ?
SABA use must be accompanied by a controller medication (preferably ICS with the addition of LABA or TRM or all three classes) except when the child only has exercise induced bronchospasm or cough or wheeze episodes completely clearing on one inhalation of albuterol occurring twice a week or less.
* Recommended Dosage: Two inhalations (90 mcg) repeated every 4-6 hours for treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm or prevention of asthmatic symptoms.
An extremely safe medication, cromolyn is used to prevent bronchospasm episodes as well as slowly reverse spasm changes already present.
The company stated that ProAir RespiClick (albuterol sulfate) was approved by the US FDA in March 2015 for the treatment or prevention of bronchospasm in patients 12 years of age and older with reversible obstructive airway disease and for the prevention of EIB.
It helps with really tight bronchospasm, especially in the hospital or emergency room," said Erin Kelleher, M.D., a pediatrician at Children's Medical Practice in Bronxville, N.Y.
In addition, patients with asthma or bronchospasm make these difficulties even more challenging.
FASENRA is not approved for the treatment of other eosinophilic conditions or relief of acute bronchospasm or status asthmaticus.
Medics found the episode was caused by Acute Bronchospasm - a condition linked to asthma in which the airways narrow.
It is not indicated for the relief of acute bronchospasm.
Petar Georgiev, manager of the pulmonary disease hospital in Blagoevgrad: There are new people, young people who are not so damaged by smoking, but now because of this smog and some infections, they quickly develop bronchospasm. This bronchospasm, if not healed properly, may turn into asthma or chronic bronchitis, from there into chronic pulmonary disease.
The drug's label includes a boxed warning that it could trigger hypersensitivity pneumonitis, bronchospasm, exacerbation of underlying lung disease, and hemoptysis, the agency said.
Tachycardia, hypotension, significant bronchospasm, and urticaria should alert the anesthesiologist for anaphylaxis (6).