The variety of complications are caused by lost gallstones [3-5]; may range from simple surgical site infection to more serious forms like broncholithiasis
. The incidence of complications related to spillage of gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is between 2.3% and 7%.
PCV 7.05 85 40 23 53 HFOV 7.09 68 79 20 90 CMV 1 7.35 45 55 24 86 DLV 7.47 36 71 26 95 CMV 2 7.44 45 138 30 98 TABLE 2 Pulmonary resection Persistent spontaneous pneumothorax, including ruptured bulla(e) Necrotizing pulmonary infection Inflammatory lung diseases Malignancy After chemotherapy or radiotherapy for lung cancer Thoracic trauma After lung transplant ARDS Iatrogenic (e.g., chest tube insertion and central venous line placements) Broncholithiasis
Endobronchial nocardiosis associated with broncholithiasis
. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2008; 69:183-185.
Other uncommon complications and/ or associations include alveolar proteinosis, lung cancer, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis and broncholithiasis
(6, 7) This hemoptysis can be a result of a variety of sequelae and complications such as fibrosis or cicatrization, cavities, end-stage lung destruction, aspergilloma; airway lesions (including bronchiectasis, tracheobronchial stenosis, and broncholithiasis
), or vascular lesions (including pulmonary or bronchial arteritis and thrombosis, bronchial artery dilatation, and Rasmussen aneurysm).
Those complications are multiple and widespread; they include abdominal wall abscess , broncholithiasis
[15-19], lung abscess, empyema , erosion to the back , subdiaphragmatic abscess , liver abscess , splenic abscess, retroperitoneal abscess , peritonitis , granulomatous peritonitis, intestinal obstruction , thrombosis, colocutaneous fistula , malignancy, dyspareunia, and infertility [30, 31], bladder obstruction, incarcerated hernia , cellulitis , and septicemia .
does not have to be endobronchial.
(1) In a review of patients referred with refractory cough, bronchoscopic diagnoses were found in one-quarter of cases and included aspirated foreign bodies, tumours, and other very rare conditions (broncholithiasis
, tracheobronchopathia, laryngeal dyskinesia).
A case report describes silicosis leading to tracheobronchial obstruction, which is owing to calcified mediastinal lymph nodes compression and erosion (broncholithiasis
The Surgical Implication of Broncholithiasis
. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg.
The other sequlae include: histoplasmoma, broncholithiasis
, mediastinal granuloma, and mediastinal fibrosis.
2) airway lesions like bronchiectasis, broncholithiasis
and 3) vascular lesions like bronchial arteritis and aneurysmal dilatation.