Yadav, "Acquired spontaneous bronchoesophageal fistula in an adult," Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis, vol.
Kulkarni, "Clinical profile and management of tuberculous bronchoesophageal fistula," Journal of Digestive Endoscopy, vol.
As candidal colonization of the esophagus is common in HIV-infected individuals with low CD4 counts, candida may be suspected but cannot be proven, as the definitive etiology of bronchoesophageal fistula in our patient.
Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is much more common than bronchoesophageal fistula (BEF).
Acquired tracheoesophagoal and bronchoesophageal fistula. Chap.
Repair of acquired tracheoesophagoal and bronchoesophageal fistula. Chap 26.
[6.] 6 Risher WH, Arensman RM, Ochsner JL: Congenital bronchoesophageal fistula
. Ann Thorac Surg 1990; 49:500-505.
A bronchoesophageal fistula
was also diagnosed, for which he declined intervention.
Adult Bronchoesophageal Fistula
Diagnosed on Computed Tomography.
Patients with malignant tracheoesophageal or bronchoesophageal fistula
should be considered for stenting of the esophagus, airway, or both for symptomatic relief, but attempts at curative resection or esophageal bypass are not recommended (grade 1C).
Choi et al., "Benign bronchoesophageal fistula
in adults: endoscopic closure as primary treatment," Gut and Liver, vol.
Acquired Benign Bronchoesophageal Fistulas
in the Adult.