Surgical management of acquired nonmalignant tracheoesophageal and bronchoesophageal
Yadav, "Acquired spontaneous bronchoesophageal
fistula in an adult," Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis, vol.
Acquired Benign Bronchoesophageal
Fistulas in the Adult.
Tokairin et al., "Larynx-preserving surgery for cervical esophageal carcinoma," Journal of the Japan Bronchoesophageal
However, the bronchoesophageal
artery ramified from the subclavian artery just lateral to the origin of the common carotid artery in the coturnix quail (Fitzgerald, 1969).
As candidal colonization of the esophagus is common in HIV-infected individuals with low CD4 counts, candida may be suspected but cannot be proven, as the definitive etiology of bronchoesophageal
fistula in our patient.
The complications are rarely bronchoesophageal
or bronchoaortic fistulas.
Acquired tracheoesophagoal and bronchoesophageal
fistula was also diagnosed, for which he declined intervention.
Fistula Diagnosed on Computed Tomography.
Moreover, studies [Studies] on the systemic arterial pattern of the guinea pig versus that of mammals showed guinea pig' deviations from normal mammal patterns: a) the origin of the vertebral artery has two rami; b) there is a large dorsoscapular artery as a fifth branch of the subclavian artery; c) the bronchoesophageal
artery arises from the right internal thoracic artery or the costocervical trunk instead of from the aorta; d) there is a celiomesenteric trunk instead of separate celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries; and e) the renal arteries frequently have a double origin.
Patients with malignant tracheoesophageal or bronchoesophageal
fistula should be considered for stenting of the esophagus, airway, or both for symptomatic relief, but attempts at curative resection or esophageal bypass are not recommended (grade 1C).