bronchioloalveolar carcinoma

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 [kahr″sĭ-no´mah] (pl. carcinomas, carcino´mata)
a malignant new growth made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate surrounding tissues and to give rise to metastases. A form of cancer, carcinoma makes up the majority of the cases of malignancy of the breast, uterus, intestinal tract, skin, and tongue.
adenocystic carcinoma (adenoid cystic carcinoma) carcinoma marked by cylinders or bands of hyaline or mucinous stroma separated or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells, occurring in the mammary and salivary glands, and mucous glands of the respiratory tract. Called also cylindroma.
alveolar carcinoma bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.
basal cell carcinoma the most common form of skin cancer, consisting of an epithelial tumor of the skin originating from neoplastic differentiation of basal cells, rarely metastatic but locally invasive and aggressive. It usually occurs as small pearly nodules or plaques on the face of an older adult, particularly on a sun-exposed area of someone with fair skin. It has been divided into numerous subtypes on the basis of clinical and histological characteristics.
basosquamous carcinoma carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements.
bronchioalveolar carcinoma (bronchiolar carcinoma) (bronchioloalveolar carcinoma) (bronchoalveolar carcinoma) a variant type of adenocarcinoma of the lung, with columnar to cuboidal epithelial cells lining the alveolar septa and projecting into alveolar spaces in branching papillary formations. Called also alveolar carcinoma or adenocarcinoma and bronchiolar, bronchioloalveolar, or bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma.
bronchogenic carcinoma any of a large group of carcinomas of the lung, so called because they arise from the epithelium of the bronchial tree. Four primary subtypes are distinguished: adenocarcinoma of the lung, large cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.
cholangiocellular carcinoma a rare type of hepatocellular carcinoma arising from the cholangioles, consisting of two layers of cells surrounding a minute lumen. Called also bile duct carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma.
chorionic carcinoma choriocarcinoma.
colloid carcinoma mucinous carcinoma.
cylindrical cell carcinoma carcinoma in which the cells are cylindrical or nearly so.
embryonal carcinoma a highly malignant germ cell tumor that is a primitive form of carcinoma, probably of primitive embryonal cell derivation; it usually arises in a gonad and may be found either in pure form or as part of a mixed germ cell tumor.
epidermoid carcinoma squamous cell carcinoma.
giant cell carcinoma a poorly differentiated, highly malignant, epithelial neoplasm containing many large multinucleated tumor cells, such as occurs in the lungs.
hepatocellular carcinoma primary carcinoma of the liver cells with hepatomegaly, jaundice, hemoperitoneum, and other symptoms of the presence of an abdominal mass. It is rare in North America and Western Europe but is one of the most common malignancies in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, East Asia, and elsewhere. A strong association seems to exist with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
Hürthle cell carcinoma a malignant Hürthle cell tumor.
carcinoma in si´tu a neoplasm whose tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane; the likelihood of subsequent invasive growth is presumed to be high.
large cell carcinoma a type of bronchogenic carcinoma of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size, a variety of squamous cell carcinoma that has undergone further dedifferentiation.
medullary carcinoma that composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma.
mucinous carcinoma an adenocarcinoma that produces significant amounts of mucin.
nasopharyngeal carcinoma a malignant tumor arising in the epithelial lining of the nasopharynx, occurring at high frequency in people of Chinese descent. The epstein-barr virus has been implicated as a causative agent.
non–small cell carcinoma a general term comprising all lung carcinomas except small cell carcinoma, and including adenocarcinoma of the lung, large cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.
oat cell carcinoma a form of small cell carcinoma in which the cells are round or elongated and slightly larger than lymphocytes; they have scanty cytoplasm and clump poorly.
papillary carcinoma carcinoma in which there are papillary growths that are irregular in nature arising from otherwise normal tissue; it can occur in the thyroid gland, the breast, or the bladder. Called also papillocarcinoma.
renal cell carcinoma carcinoma of the renal parenchyma, composed of tubular cells in varying arrangements; called also clear cell carcinoma.
scirrhous carcinoma carcinoma with a hard structure owing to the formation of dense connective tissue in the stroma. Called also fibrocarcinoma.
carcinoma sim´plex an undifferentiated carcinoma.
small cell carcinoma a common, highly malignant form of bronchogenic carcinoma in the wall of a major bronchus, occurring mainly in middle-aged individuals with a history of tobacco smoking; it is radiosensitive and has small oval undifferentiated cells. Metastasis to the hilum and to mediastinal lymph nodes is common.
spindle cell carcinoma squamous cell carcinoma marked by development of rapidly proliferating spindle cells.
squamous cell carcinoma
1. carcinoma developed from squamous epithelium, having cuboid cells and characterized by keratinization. Initially local and superficial, the lesion may later invade and metastasize.
2. the form occurring in the skin, usually originating in sun-damaged areas or preexisting lesions.
3. in the lung, one of the most common types of bronchogenic carcinoma, generally forming polypoid or sessile masses that obstruct the airways of the bronchi. It usually occurs in middle-aged individuals with a history of smoking. There is frequent invasion of blood and lymphatic vessels with metastasis to regional lymph nodes and other sites. Called also epidermoid carcinoma.
transitional cell carcinoma a malignant tumor arising from a transitional type of stratified epithelium, usually affecting the urinary bladder.
verrucous carcinoma
1. a variety of squamous cell carcinoma that has a predilection for the buccal mucosa but also affects other oral soft tissue and the larynx. It is slow-growing and somewhat invasive.
2. Buschke-Löwenstein tumor, so called because it is histologically similar to the oral lesion.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

al·ve·o·lar cell car·ci·no·ma

a carcinoma, subtype of adenocarcinoma, thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli; involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular; microscopically, the neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures; mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells; metastases in regional lymph nodes, and even in more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

bronchioloalveolar carcinoma

An uncommon carcinoma (±4% of non-small cell lung cancers), which is defined by size (> 5 cm), non-invasive (lepidic) growth along well-preserved alveolar walls and no well-formed glands; those that are invasive are termed adenocarcinoma with a BAC pattern of growth.
More common in those who have never smoked, women and Asians.

Resection, lung transplantation.

• Mucinous—columnar, little atypia, usually worse prognosis because multicentric (28% 5-year survival vs 78% for localised tumours);
• Non-mucinous—hobnail cells, more atypia;
• Mixed.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

bronchioloalveolar carcinoma

Oncology A type of adenocarcinoma–representing ±4% of non-small cell lung CAs–that spreads widely throughout the lungs. See Lung cancer.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

bron·chi·o·lar car·ci·no·ma

(brong'kē-ō'lăr kahr'si-nō'mă)
A carcinoma, thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli; may be diffuse, nodular, or lobular; the neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures; metastases are infrequent.
Synonym(s): alveolar cell carcinoma, bronchiolar adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, bronchoalveolar carcinoma.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: An exceptional cause of diffuse lung disease in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia.
High-resolution CT findings of diffuse bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in 38 patients.
Therefore, lepidic predominant invasive adenocarcinomas (which have invasive components that are >5 mm in greatest dimension) include examples of cancers that might have also been called "bronchioloalveolar carcinomas" historically by pathologists or other physicians.
The formerly termed mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, "characterized by very bland cells with abundant intracytoplasmic mucin, seemingly 'stuck on' to alveoli with abrupt transitions," (31(p58)) is now termed invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma and is considered an invasive adenocarcinoma rather than an in situ cancer.
Thirty of the MAs were morphologically consistent with a subset of carcinoma formerly classified as mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The remaining 2 cases included 1 case of colloid carcinoma and 1 case of solid ACA with signet ring cell features.
Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of lung.
Jian and colleagues (11) reported 1 subtype closely related to the morphology of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The use of 3D reconstruction is not necessary to recognize this pattern, but elastic stain facilitates the recognition of the (2D seemingly discontinuous) elastic fibers of the preexisting lung.
(1) As explained in the manuscript focused on the aspects of this classification that focus on resection specimens, most tumors formerly classified as mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma have invasive areas, so the term proposed for these tumors is now invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (Figure 10, A and B).
One of the most important changes in terminology is the designation of neoplasms previously classified as bronchioloalveolar carcinoma as adenocarcinoma in situ to emphasize that they tend not to spread to regional lymph nodes or to metastasize.
(8) Apart from the issues around small-sample diagnosis and the need to correlate morphology with molecular data and radiology, as already mentioned above, there were 2 major pitfalls in the 2004 WHO classification of adenocarcinoma: (1) the term bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) was widely misunderstood and misused, and (2) the mixed adenocarcinoma category accounted for most surgically resected cases.