The Fleischner society paper notes that, in line with the previous guidelines, (2) the histopathologic confirmation is not needed in the context of a "typical UIP pattern," which demonstrates basal-predominant (occasionally diffuse) and subpleural-predominant, often heterogeneous, reticular opacities with peripheral traction bronchiectasis or bronchiolectasis
, with honeycombing, and an absence of features to suggest an alternative diagnosis (1) (Table).
Chronic bronchiolitis may lead to the progressive bronchiectasis and bronchiolectasis
This revealed chronic bronchiolitis with bronchiolectasis
and patchy interstitial fibrosis.
 described a case of acute T-cell lymphoma in which there was an alloy wheel appearance with a large cyst in the center of the ground-glass opacities surrounded peripherally by smaller clustered cysts from a combination of check valve effect and traction bronchiolectasis
A subpleural reticular pattern associated with focal thickening of the pleura and traction bronchiectasis and bronchiolectasis
is also noted.
Retrospective review of HRCT scans on vitrea workstation was done by four qualified radiologists for presence or absence of ground glass haze, airspace consolidation, reticulation and honeycombing, extent and zonal distribution of HRCT findings, severity of bronchiolectasis
/ bronchiectasis, architectural distortion or ancillary findings such as lymphadenopathy and associated pleural or cardiac changes.
Third, high-resolution computed tomography scans of the chest in patients with bronchiectasis do not exclusively show dilated bronchi; they also show signs of small airway involvement, such as air trapping, the tree-in-bud pattern, bronchiolectasis
, and excess mucus (11).
Bilateral extensive septal thickennings, reticulonodular appearance, patchy bronchiectasis, bronchiolectasis
and peribronchial thickennings were found on high-resolution thoracal computarized tomography.
A chest x-ray showed generalized bronchiolectasis
, but no consolidation.
Characteristic findings on high-resolution computed tomography (CT) chest scans in patients with CHP include fibrosis with reticulation, architectural distortion, traction bronchiectasis, and bronchiolectasis
(Figure 1, A through D).
Honeycombing and bronchiolectasis
may be present in the fibrotic areas, but these findings are generally central in distribution, unlike the subpleural distribution of honeycombing that is characteristic of the UIP pattern.
(11) Radiologic features of disease advancement to the proliferative and fibrotic phases are characterized by traction bronchiolectasis
or bronchiectasis within areas of increased attenuation on high-resolution computerized tomography scans.