It is recognized that bronchial tree
is not sterile in healthy and COPD individuals; the lung microbiome plays a significant role in normal lung function and diseases.
Below the epithelial layer is a spiralling layer of smooth muscle that grows thicker further down the bronchial tree
, but is absent from the bronchioles.
On the asymmetry of bifurcations in the bronchial tree
. Respiration Physiology, 107, pp.
A morphological study of the lungs and bronchial tree
of the dog: with a suggested system of nomenclature for bronchi.
A detailed assessment of the relationship between CT and bronchoscopic visualization of airway lesions is followed by individual chapters devoted to specific anatomical portions of the bronchial tree
. The final chapter explores the emerging field of physiologic airway imaging.
The saliva, gastric juice, intestinal bacteria, blood, liver, epithelial lining fluid, pulmonary alveolar macrophages, peripheral lung parynchema, and bronchial tree
have all been associated with eliminating Cr(VI) from the body.
The model, when completed, will represent the complete delivery process, from the medical device vapor release to its travel down a patient's bronchial tree
and into the pulmonary artery.
Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the lining of the "bronchial tree
"--the bronchi and their smaller branches, the bronchioles--resulting in narrowing of the airways and difficulty in breathing.
Each lobe is supplied by branched airways called the bronchial tree
, which branches to form right and left primary bronchi that again divide into secondary bronchi.
A technique developed by Ronald Summers and James Shelhamer of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., virtual bronchoscopy is virtual noninvasive imaging of the human bronchial tree
. Using computerized tomography (CT) and specialized software, the technique creates accurate 3-D images that can identify lesions on the bronchial wall and help doctors make precise measurements of bronchial size.
Three-quarters of the youths also suffered centriacinar-region lung disease -- a condition characterized by chronic inflammation, and often structural aberations, in the smallest, terminal "twigs" of the bronchial tree