Chapter 15 -- Global Pulmonology Market Analysis 2013--2017 and Forecast 2018--2026, by Indication Based on the Indication, the Interventional Pulmonology market is segmented into Astham, COPD, Lung Cancer, Foreign Body Removal, Tracheal and Bronchial Stenosis
According to bronchoscopic features, EBTB could be classified into 7 subtypes: fibrostenotic, edematous-hyperemic, actively caseating, tumorous, ulcerative, granular, and nonspecific bronchitic type. Studies showed that posttuberculosis scarring airway stenosis could be caused not only by fibrostenotic type but also other types such as actively caseating, edematous-hyperemic, and tumorous type., In these cases, specific measures are essential for preventing or minimizing the bronchial stenosis
. For active endobronchial tuberculosis patients, the primary goal of treatment is the eradication of tubercle bacilli, and progression to airway stenosis may be prevented if the therapy is initiated at the earliest.
Other bronchoscopic findings included granulation tissue, mucosal edema, and bronchial stenosis
. The right lower lobe bronchus (30%) and left mainstem bronchus (20%) were the most common locations of foreign bodies .
Intrinsic factors include cartilaginous deficiency, bronchial stenosis
, redundant bronchial mucosa or mucous plugs.
Anthracofibrosis, bronchial stenosis
with overlying anthracotic mucosa: possibly a new occupational lung disorder: a series of seven cases from one UK hospital.
A study by Chung et al suggests that TB can be the causative agent if bronchial stenosis
and fibrosis occur with anthracosis.
Approximately 25% of patients have subglottic stenosis and approximately 10% will have bronchial stenosis
. (8) Additional pulmonary findings on CT include pulmonary nodules and masses, some of which may be cavitary, consolidation and ground-glass opacities.
Bronchial mucosal damage induced by tuberculosis or other inflammatory reactions can lead to fibrosis and bronchial stenosis
. (8) On this basis, it is believed that anthracofibrosis is actually a process of active tuberculosis.
% Normal Appearance 9 27.27 Abnormal Mucosal hyperemia and oedema 16 48.48 Appearance Mucopurulent secretion 13 39.39 (24) Bleeding site 6 18.18 Mucosal atrophy 4 12.12 Bronchial stenosis
4 12.12 Intraluminal growth 3 9.09 Granular surface 4 12.12 Vocal cord abnormalities: 3 9.09 errosion/paralysis Table--2: Result of Acid Fast Bacilli in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Smear No.
Lowered initial serum TGF-beta levels and changes in the levels of TGF-beta observed in the serum after treatment have been implicated in the development of bronchial stenosis
during the course of the disease .
Choanal atresia and/or stenosis (Figure-1), subglottic and tracheal stenosis (Figure-2), and bronchial stenosis
(Figure-3) were the commoner lesions observed, while foreign body aspiration (Figure-4) was also noted in the study.