will be obtained by the use of a stiff-bristle disposable brush.
Lung cytology specimens are either fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) obtained by minimally invasive procedures, or exfoliative--including sputum, bronchial brushings
and bronchial washings, bronchoalveolar lavages, and body cavity fluids/effusions.
 also reported the highest yield in the diagnosis of malignancy by endobronchial biopsy (85%) followed by bronchial brushings
(34%) and washings (12%).
Microfilaria have been detected in cervicovaginal smears , endometrial smears , nipple secretions , ovarian cyst fluid , breast aspirates , hydrocele fluid , epididymal aspirates , urine samples , lung aspirates , pleural fluid , bronchial washings , ascitic fluid , intra-operative peritoneal fluid , lymph node aspirates [17,18], thyroid aspirates , salivary gland aspirates , bronchial brushings
, laryngeal and pharyngeal brushings , gastric brushings , pericardial fluid , cutaneous nodule , soft tissue nodule , oral and skin ulcers , bone marrow aspirates , brain aspirates , joint aspirates , fine needle aspirates , esophageal stricture  and breast aspirates [33,34].
subjects and bronchial brushings
in 50 and in some subjects all samples were taken simultaneously.
Human samples were derived from autopsy tissues and from bronchial brushings
taken from individuals with chronic bronchitis as well as healthy controls.
The best chance of survival occurs with early diagnosis, and bronchial brushings
are the key investigation to allow this.
Acid-fast bacilli smears and cultures from sputum, bronchial brushings
, and washings were all negative.
We have used this method to investigate small amounts of material such as nasal or bronchial brushings
as well as cell culture.
This is likely to be explained on the basis that most of the pathological diagnoses in this study subgroup were made by bronchial brushings
and washings, in which cell concentration was lesser compared to that of a biopsy specimen and hence the cell diagnosis could not be accurately determined, so a predominance of poorly differentiated carcinoma was noted in this subgroup.
The supplemental questionnaire further queried which respiratory specimen types were performed in each laboratory (sputa, bronchial washings, bronchial brushings
, bronchoalveolar lavages, percutaneous transthoracic image-guided fine-needle aspirations, percutaneous transthoracic image-guided core biopsies with touch preparations, endobronchial ultrasound-guided [EBUS] fine-needle aspirations, bronchial mucosal or transbronchial biopsies with touch preparations, and electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopies).
DISCUSSION: With the advent of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope, respiratory diagnostics took a new turn as samples like bronchial washings, bronchial brushings
, broncho-alveolar lavage and trans-bronchial needle aspirations could be collected from the respiratory tract, yielding significant amount of cytological material and causative agent(s).