2),(3) Bronchial atresia and defective bronchial cartilage are common causes.
Two cases of prenatally diagnosed congenital lobar emphysema caused by lobar bronchial atresia.
Congenital lobar emphysema: a case with bronchial atresia and abnormal bronchial cartilages.
Bronchial atresia of the right lower lobe; Acta Radiol 2005; 46:480-483.
Abitayeh G, Ruano R, Martinovic J, Barthe B, Aubry MC, Benachi A, Prenatal diagnosis of main stem bronchial atresia using 3-dimensional ultrasonographic technologies; J Ultrasound Med 2010; 29:633-638.
For the purpose of this review, we will focus on the most commonly encountered lesions in our practice, which include cystic adenomatoid malformation, bronchopulmonary sequestration (BPS), and bronchial atresia (BA).
Bronchial atresia (BA) is characterized by atresia or stenosis of a lobar, segmental or subsegmental bronchus at or near its origin, resulting in a blindending atretic proximal bronchus and a distended, fluid- filled distal airway that contains variable amounts of mucus, also called mucocele.
The differential diagnosis on chest radiograph includes unilateral agenesis or extrinsic pulmonary artery occlusion from tumor, pulmonary embolism, bronchial obstruction (central or extrinsic) causing compensatory emphysema, bronchial atresia
, pseudo hyperlucent lung in patients after mastectomy, absence or atrophy of pectoral muscles, and shoulder girdle.
Rarer entities include congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS), congenital bronchogenic cyst, bronchial atresia
, pulmonary Arterio Venous malformation (PAVM), congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia, pulmonary hypoplasia-aplasia, mediastinal teratoma, and mediastinal lymphangioma.
2) It presents as an echogenic lung mass during the prenatal period, and other differential diagnoses include cystic adenomatoid malformation (CAM), sequestrated lung, and tracheal or bronchial atresia