brevetoxins

bre·ve·tox·ins (BTX),

(brev'ĕ-tok'sins),
Structurally unique neurotoxins produced by the "red tide" dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis Davis (Gymnodinium breve Davis), a species of algae responsible for large fish kills and for mollusk and human food poisoning in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Florida coast. Unlike previously isolated dinoflagellate toxins, such as saxitoxin, which are water-soluble sodium channel blockers, the brevotoxins are lipid-soluble sodium channel activators.
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For example, harmful algal blooms produced by Karenia brevis, a marine dinoflagellate, have been reported to produce brevetoxins that are associated with gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses (Backer et al.
Red tide organisms cause problems for fish because they emit chemicals called brevetoxins which interfere with the functioning of gills.
Brevetoxins, unique activators of voltage-sensitive sodium channels bind to specific sites in rat brain synaptosomes.
Karenia brevis red tides, brevetoxins in the food web, and impacts on natural resources: Decadal advancements.
Tetrazolium-based cell bioassay for neurotoxins active on voltage-sensitive sodium channels: semiautomated assay for saxitoxins, brevetoxins, and ciguatoxins.
The chemicals of focus are okadaic acid, brevetoxins, lyngbyatoxin A, caulerpenyne, bryostatins, and isocyano terpenes.
Phycotoxins are covered in alphabetical order and include: azaspiracids, brevetoxins, domoic acid, pectenotoxins, and yessotoxins.
Monitoring brevetoxins during a Gymnodinium breve red tide: comparison of sodium channel specific cytotoxicity assay and mouse bioassay for determination of neurotoxic shellfish toxins in shell-fish extracts.
Scientists are working to harness these novel compounds as antidotes to brevetoxins or even as treatments for unrelated lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis.
Brevetoxins can also be aerosolized by wave action.