bre·ve·tox·ins (BTX),

Structurally unique neurotoxins produced by the "red tide" dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis Davis (Gymnodinium breve Davis), a species of algae responsible for large fish kills and for mollusk and human food poisoning in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Florida coast. Unlike previously isolated dinoflagellate toxins, such as saxitoxin, which are water-soluble sodium channel blockers, the brevotoxins are lipid-soluble sodium channel activators.
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Goldfish toxicity measurements with 1 showed it to be among the most ichthyotoxic metabolites isolated to date from a marine plant ([LD.sub.50] = 0.05[micro]g/mL), exceeded in potency only by brevetoxins. Detailed biological studies of this peptide revealed that 1 is an activator of VGSC, (26-28) although its binding site on VGSC is unknown.
Chen, "Gold nanoparticles-decorated amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimer for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of brevetoxins in food samples," Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol.
Karenia brevis red tides, brevetoxins in the food web, and impacts on natural resources: Decadal advancements.
Tetrazolium-based cell bioassay for neurotoxins active on voltage-sensitive sodium channels: semiautomated assay for saxitoxins, brevetoxins, and ciguatoxins.
The chemicals of focus are okadaic acid, brevetoxins, lyngbyatoxin A, caulerpenyne, bryostatins, and isocyano terpenes.
Phycotoxins are covered in alphabetical order and include: azaspiracids, brevetoxins, domoic acid, pectenotoxins, and yessotoxins.
Scientists are working to harness these novel compounds as antidotes to brevetoxins or even as treatments for unrelated lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis.
Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning is caused by the red tide dinoflagellate, which produces brevetoxins. The symptoms are similar to those of ciguatera, and patients generally recover in a few days.
(2005) Airway Responses to Aerosolized Brevetoxins in an Animal Model of Asthma.
International collaborations with IMB to investigate human toxicity incidents include groups in Australia (new pectenotoxins), Ireland (azaspiracids, DSP), Japan (DSP, pectenotoxins), Portugal (ASP, DSP, pectenotoxins), Spain (DSP, PSP), Taiwan (DSP, PSP, microcystins), UK (ASP), USA (ASP), and New Zealand (gymnodimine, yessotoxin, brevetoxins, DSP).
Section two, on polyether toxins in seafood poisoning, includes articles on the molecular basis of ciguatoxin action; detection, metabolism, and pathophysiology of brevetoxins; X-ray crystallographic studies of marine toxins; and effects of maitotoxin on smooth and cardiac muscle.