brevetoxin


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bre·ve·tox·in

(brev-ĕ-tok'sin)
A structurally unique neurotoxin produced by the "red tide" dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus breve Davis (Gymnodinium breve Davis), a species of algae responsible for large fish kills and mollusk and human food poisoning in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Florida coast. Unlike previously isolated dinoflagellate toxins, such as saxitoxin, which are water-soluble sodium channel blockers, the brevetoxins are lipid-soluble sodium channel activators; used in neurobiologic research.

brevetoxin

(brev′ĕ-tok″sin) [ (Karenia) brevis + toxin]
A potent, lipid-soluble, neurotoxic compound produced by marine dinoflagellates, such as Karenia brevis, an organism initially identified in "red tides” in coastal Florida.
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Symptoms of brevetoxin poisoning include muscle pain, abdominal pain, severe nausea and other digestive distress, headache, loss of orientation, even respiratory failure.
For example, members of the brevetoxin and ciguatoxin families of marine polyether are potent neurotoxins.
In 2015, so-called "red tides" associated with domoic acid (as well as other algae-produced poisons such as saxitoxin and brevetoxin) rolled in on beaches from northern Washington to Southern California, shutting down Dungeness crab and other fisheries up and down the US West Coast.
Milton, "Characterization of brevetoxin (PbTx-3) exposure in neurons of the anoxia-tolerant freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta)," Aquatic Toxicology, vol.
In this series of 26 cases, samples of the suspected seafood in 21 cases were tested by the CDC or the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as negative for the following known aquatic toxins: ciguatoxin, saxitoxin, brevetoxin, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, domoic acid, okadaic acid, and two blue-green algal or cyanobacterial toxins (microcystin and nodularin).
After all, brevetoxin, the naturally produced red tide poison, graces the cover of my college organic chemistry textbook.
After a 60-year overview of the history and evolution of synthesis of natural products, sections on comparative design cover classics in terpenes and alkaloid synthesis, with an additional section on miscellaneous targets such as palytoxin, brevetoxin B, and indinavir.
Bad as the neurotoxic effect might be, Baden's team unveiled at the meeting three new mechanisms of brevetoxin poisoning--detrimental changes in lung function, immunity, and DNA.
Brevetoxin, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve, killed approximately 150 Florida manatee, another endangered species, in 1996 (Bossart et al 1998), and was likely the cause for a smaller die-off in 1982 (O'Shea et al.
2008) demonstrating partial agonism at neurotoxin site 5 in that treatment of neurons with a combination of a high-efficacy activator (brevetoxin 1) and a low-efficacy activator (gambierol) resulted in an inhibition of the response to the high-efficacy compound by the low-efficacy compound.