In this series of 26 cases, samples of the suspected seafood in 21 cases were tested by the CDC or the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as negative for the following known aquatic toxins: ciguatoxin, saxitoxin, brevetoxin
, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, domoic acid, okadaic acid, and two blue-green algal or cyanobacterial toxins (microcystin and nodularin).
On the other hand, recent studies have not detected brevetoxin
You can examine a sample of coastal sea water almost any time and find a few red tide critters, but when the population skyrockets, the amount of brevetoxin
in the water can become high enough to kill fish.
After all, brevetoxin
, the naturally produced red tide poison, graces the cover of my college organic chemistry textbook.
After a 60-year overview of the history and evolution of synthesis of natural products, sections on comparative design cover classics in terpenes and alkaloid synthesis, with an additional section on miscellaneous targets such as palytoxin, brevetoxin
B, and indinavir.
Bad as the neurotoxic effect might be, Baden's team unveiled at the meeting three new mechanisms of brevetoxin
poisoning--detrimental changes in lung function, immunity, and DNA.
, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve, killed approximately 150 Florida manatee, another endangered species, in 1996 (Bossart et al 1998), and was likely the cause for a smaller die-off in 1982 (O'Shea et al.
Inhibition of brevetoxin
binding to the voltage-gated sodium channel by gambierol and gambieric acid-A.
However, when staff members visited the Fernandina Beach worksite on the same day, they observed dead fish and detected the characteristic odor of brevetoxin
, the toxin produced naturally by K brevis.
Fish remained healthy while brevetoxin
accumulated in tissues from a food source, and thus they served as a mechanism for trophic transfer of toxins (Flewelling et al.
and its derivatives, and ciguatoxin bind to different sites of voltage-dependant sodium channels, resulting in either an inhibition or a persistent activation of the channels, with consequent increase in intracellular calcium (Kao & Walkwe 1982, Gutierrez et al.
He laced the rodents' food with the drug for a week and then exposed the animals to brevetoxin
, the poison made by Florida's red tide algae (SN: 11/30/02, p.