breast examination


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examination

 [eg-zam″ĭ-na´shun]
inspection or investigation, especially as a means of diagnosing disease.
breast examination in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as inspection and palpation of the breasts and related areas.
mental status examination a standardized procedure to gather data to determine etiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment for patients with mental disorders.
pelvic examination physical assessment of the internal pelvic organs. It includes inspection with a speculum, a papanicolaou smear, bimanual palpation, and a rectovaginal examination.
physical examination examination of the bodily state of a patient by ordinary physical means, as inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation.
postmortem examination autopsy.

breast examination1

a process in which the breasts and their accessory structures are observed and palpated in assessing the presence of changes or abnormalities that could indicate malignant disease. See also self-breast examination.
method The breasts are observed with the patient sitting with her arms at her sides; sitting with her arms over her head, back straight, then leaning forward; and, finally, sitting upright as she contracts the pectoral muscles by placing hands on hips. The breasts are observed for symmetry of shape and size and for surface characteristics, including moles or nevi, hyperpigmentation, retraction or dimpling, edema, abnormal distribution of hair, focal vascularity, or lesions. With the patient still sitting, the axillary nodes and the supraclavicular and subclavicular areas are palpated. With the patient lying on her back, each breast is shifted medially, and the glandular area in each is palpated with the flat of the fingers of a hand in concentric circles or in a pattern like the spokes of a wheel, from the periphery inward. The areolar areas, the nipples, and the axillary tail of Spence in the upper outer quadrant extending toward the axilla are then palpated. The nipple is squeezed to check for discharge.
interventions The patient should be taught to perform a self-breast examination and encouraged to do it monthly. The American Cancer Society recommends starting at about age 18. Premenopausal women should examine breasts approximately 1 week past the menstrual period, when breasts are less tender and less swollen. Postmenopausal women should choose a specific time each month, such as the first day of the month. Many women find it helpful to check their breasts every time they shower for the first few months after being taught the procedure to practice and to become very familiar with their own breasts.
outcome criteria Early diagnosis greatly improves the rate of cure in cancer of the breast.
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Breast examination

breast examination2

a nursing intervention from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as inspection and palpation of the breasts and related areas. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.

screening

Medtalk The evaluation of an asymptomatic person in a population, to detect an unsuspected disease process not known to exist at the time of evaluation; screening tests measure specific parameters–eg, bp–for HTN, sigmoidoscopy–colorectal CA, imaging–eg, mammography–breast CA or lab parameters–eg, cholesterol–CAD, guaiac-positive stools–colorectal CA or Pap smears of the uterine cervix–cervical CA; screening tests in general have high sensitivities and low specificities, which allows detection of most Pts with a morbid condition, while having the acceptable disadvantage of a high rate of false positivity. See Cancer screening, Colorectal screening, Developmental screening, Drug screening, Forensic drug screening, Genetic screening, Industry screening Microalbuminuria screening, Multiphasic screening, Newborn screening Psychiatry An assessment or evaluation to determine the appropriate services for a client.
Screening
Blood-pressure Measured in normotensive persons-every 2 years, all age groups
Breast examination, ♀ By physician-every year > age 40; mammography-every 1-2 years, age 35+, every year > age 50
Cervical cytology Pap smear every 1-3 years, starting at age of first intercourse
Cholesterol Measured-every 5 years, but not in younger subjects
Prostate Rectal exam, ideally every year
References in periodicals archive ?
Meanwhile, surveys suggest that clinical breast examination is increasingly omitted in primary care practice.
He has been medical director of the Breast Examination Center of Harlem for 20 years.
The updated ACS measures recommend yearly mammograms for women beginning at age 40; clinical breast examinations as part of a periodic health exam approximately every three years for women beginning in their 20s and 30s and annually for women beginning in their 40s; incorporating breast self- examination or BSE as an option into one's personal self-care routine beginning at age 20; and encouraging women at risk for developing breast cancer to talk to their health care providers about starting routine mammography earlier than age 40 or perhaps undergoing additional tests, such as ultrasound or MRI.
The Komen Foundation recommends that women follow a positive breast health regimen that includes monthly BSE beginning at age 20 and a clinical breast examination by a trained health professional every three years.
Rather, clinical breast examination should be considered as an option that may be of particular interest in countries where breast cancer is an increasing problem but where mammography services are difficult to obtain, they said (J.
The ACS guidelines also recommend against clinical breast examinations at any age.
The shyness and hesitation to talk about breast let them embrace the death silently, as because of unavailability of trained female doctors they refuse to go for any kind of breast examination.
In addition to learning anatomy and breast examination technique, women through Discovering Hands also learn communication and Braille technology skills so they can do their documentation on their own and "don't need another helping person with them when they are doing their job," Hoffmann said.
All visitors availing of the complimentary program underwent a thorough Clinical Breast Examination followed by a 4D Breast Ultrasound, conducted by the centre's team of experts.
But, in the control group, women aged 50-59 also received annual clinical breast examinations, and women aged 40-49 were given a single breast examination.
During a 5-year screening period beginning in 1980, 666 invasive breast cancers were detected in 44,925 women randomized to receive annual mammography and annual physical breast examinations, and 524 were detected in 44,910 women randomized to receive a single physical breast examination followed by usual care in the community Of these, 180 and 171 in the mammography and control arms, respectively, died of breast cancer during up to 25 years of follow-up (mean of 22 years), Dr.
If the idea of carrying out a breast examination makes you anxious, go regularly to your doctor, say every three months, to have the examination.