branchial clefts


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bran·chi·al clefts

a bilateral series of slitlike openings into the pharynx through which water is drawn by aquatic animals; in the walls of the clefts are the vascular gill filaments that take up oxygen from the water passing through the clefts; sometimes wrongly applied to the pharyngeal grooves of mammalian embryos, which are imperforate, rudimentary homologues of complete gill clefts.
Synonym(s): gill clefts

branchial clefts

the apertures in the walls of the PHARYNX of fish or young amphibia (four-seven pairs) which allow water entering by the mouth to pass out over the gills.

branchial, branchiogenic, branchiogenous

pertaining to, or resembling, gills of a fish or derivatives of homologous parts in higher forms.

branchial arches
paired arched columns that bear the gills in lower aquatic vertebrates and which, in embryos of higher vertebrates, become modified into structures of the face, mandible, ear and neck.
branchial clefts
the clefts between the branchial arches of the embryo, formed by rupture of the membrane separating corresponding entodermal pouch and ectodermal groove.
branchial cyst
a cyst formed deep within the neck from an incompletely closed branchial cleft, usually located between the second and third branchial arches. The branchial arches develop during early embryonic life and are separated by four clefts. As the fetus develops, these arches grow to form structures within the head and neck. Two of the arches grow together and enclose the cervical sinus, a cavity in the neck. A branchial cyst may develop within the cervical sinus. Called also branchiogenic or branchiogenous cyst. Seen rarely in dogs as a slowly developing swelling in the pharyngeal area, filled with saliva.
branchial groove
an external furrow lined with ectoderm, occurring in the embryo between two branchial arches.
References in periodicals archive ?
Surgical technique for excision of first branchial cleft anomalies: How we do it.
Second branchial cleft cyst: variability of sonographic appearances in adult cases.
First branchial cleft cysts appear as simple or complicated unilocular cystic lesions within, superficial, or deep to the parotid gland on CT and MRI (Figure 7).
Based on topography and the histopathologic and immunohistochemical results, the masses were determined to be a second branchial cleft cyst for the first case and a second branchial pouch cyst for the second case.
This combination of findings often results in misdiagnosis as branchial cleft cysts or as carcinoma arising in a branchial cleft cyst.
a) Extraglandular mass- First branchial cleft cyst: First branchial cleft cyst may appear as truly cystic with anechoic content, homogeneous hyperechoic with a pseudo solid appearance or heterogeneous hypoechoic with internal debris in infected cysts.
Surgery for thyroglossal duct and branchial cleft anomalies.
FIRST BRANCHIAL CLEFT CYSTS: First branchial apparatus anomalies account for 5 % to 8 % of all branchial anomalies are usually in the form of a cyst or sinus (4).
Branchial cleft anomalies--which include branchial cysts, sinuses, and fistulas--are typically seen in the pediatric population, and they are usually unilateral.
Although the term branchial anomaly encompasses first, second, third and fourth branchial cleft cysts, sinuses and fistulae, all of which are distinct clinical entities and require separate management, all are thought to result from a similar embryologic error: incomplete obliteration of the branchial apparatus during embryogenesis (2).
Branchial cysts arise from isolated remnants of branchial clefts or branchial pouches.
A branchial cleft cyst is made up of a dense lymphoid infiltrate that is intimately associated with an epithelium-lined cyst or cysts (figure 1).