branchial arch


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branchial arch

n.

branchial arch

Embryology
See Pharyngeal arch.

Zoology
One of a number of bony or cartilaginous arches which support gills on either side of the throat of fishes and amphibians.

pha·ryn·ge·al arch

(făr-in'jē-ăl ahrch)
Typically, there are six arches in embryos of vertebrates; in the lower vertebrates, they bear gills; in the higher vertebrates (e.g., human embryos), they appear transiently and give rise to specialized structures in the head and neck.
Synonym(s): branchial arch.

branchial arch

Any of five pairs of arched structures that form the lateral and ventral walls of the pharynx of the embryo. The first is the mandibular arch; the second is the hyoid arch; the third, fourth, and fifth arches are transitory. They are partially separated from each other externally by the branchial clefts and internally by the pharyngeal pouches. They are important in the formation of structures of the face and neck.
Synonym: pharyngeal arch
See also: arch
References in periodicals archive ?
The pathogenesis of the first and second branchial arch syndrome.
Cohen Jr., "Variability versus "incidental findings" in the first and second branchial arch syndrome: unilateral variants with anophthalmia," Birth Defects Original Article Series, vol.
Distinguished from all other congeners by the combination of the following features: anterior portion of trunk wider than deep, jaws short, snout blunt, tip of anal fin rounded in male, caudal fin elliptical to acuminate in male, pelvic-fin tip not reaching to urogenital papilla in male, dorsal-fin origin posterior to anal-fin base, dorsal-fin rays 5-6, anal-fin rays 8-10, frontal squamation S-patterned, frontal scales arranged circularly, canal preopercular short and opened, contact organs absent, longitudinal series of scales 32-34, gill rakers of first branchial arch 1 + 7, dark brown oblique bars on flank, transverse black bar through the chin, and no black spot on dorsal portion of caudal fin.
A combined third and fourth branchial arch anomaly: Clinical and embryological implications.
(37) By the 4th week of embryonic life, 4-paired mesodermal arches are apparent externally, with smaller 5th and 6th branchial arches not well visualized.
Diagnosis: Astyanax minor is distinguished from Iguacu Astyanax by combination of following characters: infraorbital 3 deep but not in contact with preopercle, leaving a narrow naked area between its border and preopercle; premaxillary external series with 4-6, usually 5 or 6 pentacuspid or heptacuspid teeth; first branchial arch 9-12, usually 10 rakers in upper branch and 13-16, usually 14 or 15 rakers in lower branch; a narrow and elongated vertical humeral bar.
Similarly, there is an apparent modal difference in the total number of gill rakers on the first branchial arch between A.
In our present findings, of the additional slip in the clavicular origin of sternocleidomastoid muscle may be due to abnormal splitting in the mesoderm of post-sixth branchial arch. However, the relevance of our findings whether it is associated with the condition of wry neck and other congenital deformities of the neck needs to be evaluated by further studies.
There is also a possible difference in the number of gill rakers on the first branchial arch. Randall and Masuda (1991) indicated a range of 14-17 gill rakers for six specimens of C.
peruvianus and III-7 for Eucinostomus and Gerres sp.) and by the branchial spines in the inferior branch of the first branchial arch (13 to 14 for D.
The first and second branchial arches and the first pouch contribute to the development of the middle ear.
Postulated factors include disturbance of the interactions of growth factors,2 teratogenic drugs like meclizine,7 trauma late in pregnancy and local ischaemia and amniotic bands causing pressure on the first branchial arch.8 The maternal history did not reveal any such cause in this case.