In fact, the individuals exhibit ridge and pit external cranial ornamentation, dorsoventrally deep pars dentalis on maxilla, step-like palatine shelf at the maxilla, completely fused braincase
, reduced subtemporal fossae, occipital arterial foramina developed as a wide foramen that opens medially to a subvertical ridge, a wide and deep condyloid fossa lateral to the occipital condyle where a large jugular foramen opens, and ilium with broad supracetabular and preacetabular expansions, and very large acetabulum (see LYNCH, 1971; RAGE & ROCEK, 2007).
13] were badly preserved due to broken zygomatic arcs, nasal bones, and the braincase
Talking of a biologically distinct taxon at the moment when traces of the first culture appear (and it should be recognized that this is the oldest culture yet identified) and relating it to a larger braincase
, and thus a larger brain, than in preceding forms, gives the term a satisfactorily global and humanist perspective.
For clarity of presentation, we have depicted the elements that make up the braincase
as the neurocranial cartilage [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4E-H OMITTED], whereas those elements derived from the seven pharyngeal arches (the mandibular, hyoid, and five branchial arches) and from the pectoral girdle are presented as the pharyngeal-pectoral cartilage [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4I-L OMITTED].
It begins ossification early in marsupials (at the same time as many of the bones of the face), well in advance of CNS differentiation or ossification of other elements of the braincase
Yet the presence of a large braincase
in Neandertal fossils (hidden by hair in the picture) should have suggested the potential for humanlike activities.
Also, the fact that the bones of the braincase
aren't fully fused means that this particular fossil is that of an individual that is not fully grown yet.
the surface of braincase
was longer and zygomatic arch was wider (LM 8 and 9).
Length of braincase
(LBC) was measured from the posterior point of the postorbital process to the most posterior point of the occipital bone.
Along with the right upper arm bone and shoulder blade, damage consistent with hitting the ground after a long fall appeared in bones from an ankle, legs, pelvis, lower back, ribs, jaw and braincase
, the researchers say.
They were, arranged in alphabetical order: breadth across M1s, breadth across occipital condyles, breadth of braincase
, breadth of incisive foramina, breadth of M1, breadth of rostrum, breadth of zygomatic plate, condylo-incisive length, depth of incisor, height of skull, height of mandible, least interorbital breadth, length of bulla, length of diastema, length of incisive foramina, length of mandible, length of orbital fossa, length of palatal bridge, length of rostrum, length of maxillary molar row, and zygomatic breadth.
All these measurements are comparable while average breadth of braincase
, mandibular toothrow length and mandible length of five S.