brain herniation


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

brain herniation

Pressure-induced prolapse of part of the brain into adjacent spaces, which occurs when the brain is under high pressure.
 
Clinical findings
Coma, paralysis, unilateral dilated pupil.
 
Aetiology
Head injury, primary or metastatic brain tumour, bacterial meningitis, brain abscess.
 
Types
Cerebellar herniation, uncal (temporal) herniation, transtentorial herniation.

brain herniation

Neurology A pressure-induced prolapse of part of the brain into adjacent spaces, which occurs when the brain is under very high pressure Clinical Coma, paralysis, unilateral dilated pupil Etiology Head injury, 1º or metastatic brain tumor, bacterial meningitis, brain abscess Types Cerebellar herniation, uncal–temporal herniation, transtentorial herniation of the brain

brain

encephalon; that part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium, comprising the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain, and developed from the embryonic neural tube. It is connected at its base with the spinal cord. The brain is a mass of soft, pinkish gray nerve tissue. For specific brain diseases see under headings relating to etiology and lesion.

brain abscess
common signs caused by an abscess in the brain are circling, rotation of the head, abnormal reflexes in one eye. The CSF may show evidence of infection.
brain aneurysm
see berry aneurysm.
brain anoxia
acute or chronic insufficiency of the blood supply to the brain causes anoxia which causes clinical signs that vary with the severity of the deprivation. Acute anoxia causes muscle tremor, recumbency, convulsions and death or recovery if the anoxia is relieved soon enough. Chronic anoxia causes lethargy, weakness, blindness and sometimes convulsions. In either case there may be permanent damage.
brain case
the cranium.
brain cestodal cyst
brain coup lesion
a derivation from contrecoup.
brain dead
irreversible coma with apnea, loss of all brainstem reflexes and absence of activity on an electroencephalogram.
brain decompression
relieving the pressure within the cranial vault. This may be done surgically by opening the cranium, or medically by administering hypertonic solutions of slowly metabolized materials, such as mannitol, intravenously.
brain edema
an important part of a number of acute diseases, e.g. lead poisoning, encephalitis, salt poisoning in swine, polioencephalomalacia of ruminants and hypoxia due to any cause. Clinically manifested by blindness, opisthotonos, nystagmus, recumbency and tonic convulsions. Inherited in polled and horned Herefords; calves are recumbent at birth and are never able to stand but consciousness is normal. See also neuraxial edema.
brain ependymal lining
brain hematoma
may occur with trauma, in extradural, subdural or intraparenchymal locations. They can cause progressive increase in intracranial pressure and eventually death.
brain hemorrhage
intracranial hemorrhage affecting the brain usually follows traumatic injury but spontaneous hemorrhage may result from an intrinsic vascular lesion. Loss of consciousness is a common sign followed by residual signs depending on the locality and size of the hemorrhage. Ataxia and convulsions are common sequelae.
brain herniation
displacement of brain from the cranial vault through the foramina (tentorial notch or foramen magnum) or ventral to dural septae. The usual causes are brain edema or hemorrhage with resulting increase in intracranial pressure.
brain hypoxia
see brain anoxia (above).
brain infarction
see feline ischemic encephalopathy.
brain ischemia
see brain anoxia (above).
brain laceration
occurs in cranial trauma that fractures the skull, causes severe acceleration or deceleration, or penetrates the skull and brain tissue.
brain necrosis
brain pigmentation
occurs in phalaris spp. poisoning; a characteristic greenish brown color grossly of the gray matter in brainstem nuclei and spinal cord, caused by a suspected lysosomal storage of granules of pigment material; usually associated with some degree of Wallerian degeneration within spinal cord tracts.
brain sand
brain scanning
a radiographic, magnetic or nuclear medical procedure for the detection of brain tumors, abscesses, hematomas and other intracranial lesions. Not widely used in veterinary medicine because of the expensive equipment required.
brain spongy degeneration
brain staggers
see dummy.
brain trauma
injury to the brain, including that caused by migrating worm larvae, will have diffuse effects including the development of edema, and local effects due to pressure by displaced bone or to hemorrhage. Initial shock, manifested as unconsciousness, is likely to be followed by residual localizing signs, e.g. facial paralysis, head rotation.
brain tumors
cause signs suggestive of local space-occupying lesion in the cranial cavity, including the increased intracranial pressure syndrome, blindness with disturbance of ocular reflexes, head rotation, circling and jacksonian epileptic episodes.
brain ventricles
see third, fourth, fifth ventricle.
References in periodicals archive ?
Harvey Cushing described DC in 1905 as a palliative method against brain herniation in inoperable brain tumours9.
A rapid decline in serum levels of sodium leading to symptoms of increased intracranial pressure is a medical emergency, as further increases in braincell swelling can cause seizures, respiratory depression, coma, irreversible brain damage, or brain herniation and death.
In conclusion, the condition of one patient suffering acute intracranial hemorrhage complicating brain herniation under extremely high altitude circumstance is very danger, and whose disease progresses rapidly.
It is vital to maintain the sodium and free-water balance to prevent increased intracranial pressure and brain herniation (Bohn et al.
According to Mosnier et al, in only 1 of 14 patients with prior mastoid surgery and brain herniation through a tegmen defect was this fistula iatrogenic.
Among those who were under age 60, immunocompetent, had no history of CNS disease, no history of seizures in the prior week, and were free of specific neurologic abnormalities, the CT scans were normal and there was no evidence of brain herniation following subsequent lumbar puncture.
Two blinded researchers categorized each patient's cause of death: Four of the five deaths in the dexamethasone group were attributed to brain herniation or other neurologic causes; only one dexamethasonetreated patient died of a nonneurologic cause (including septic shock, respiratory failure, cardiac ischemia, and multiorgan failure).
Abstract: In a patient suffering from brain herniation due to a right-sided subdural hematoma, a neurological examination should show left-sided deficits, known as localizing signs, and a decreased level of consciousness.
Chiari malformation is a congenital anomaly resulting in various grades of hind brain herniation through foramen magnum.
This can precipitate fatal brain herniation, and therefore all patients at risk of convulsions should receive anticonvulsants.
Certain synthetic biomaterials, such as Marlex mesh, have also been used to support the fascia in cases of brain herniation.