Characteristic 1 2 3 4 5 Gestational age, d 281 275 280 278 285 Euthanasia + + + - + Stillbirth - - - + - RT-PCR result + - - + + Antibody titer 1:8 1:32 1:32 1:64 1:2 Clinical finding Torticollis + - + + + Arthrogryposis - - - + + Macroscopic finding Head deformity Brachygnathism
+ + + - - Asymmetry of skull + - + - - LVE - - - - - Cerebellar hypoplasia - - - - - Spinal curvature + - + + + Muscle discoloration - - - - + Histopathologic finding Cerebrum Calcification of nerve cells - + + - + Brainstem Calcification of nerve cells - - + + - Perivascular infiltration - + - - - Gliosis - - + + - Spinal cord Decrease/disappearance - - - + - of ventral horn cells Skeletal muscles Fatty replacement + - + - + Atrophy + - + - + Myositis + - + - + Calf no.
Surgical treatment of an oral defect along the rostral portion of hard palate and an oronasal fistula secondary to severe mandibular brachygnathism
and persistent canine distemper virus associated myoclonus (Fiorito, 1993) in a three year old dog.
Similarly no treatment was taken up for conditions like brachygnathism
Often the animal's head was distorted, having a horse-like or pig-like shape, brachygnathism
, prognathism, and/or diverging sagittal axes (online Technical Appendix 3 Figure 3).