Studies on the economic production losses of bovine brucellosis
are reasonably consistent across a range of production systems in Africa and Asia (13).
Epidemiology and management of a bovine brucellosis
cluster in Northern Ireland.
Sources of infection for transmission of bovine brucellosis
are aborted fetuses, fetal membranes after birth, vaginal discharges and milk from infected animals (Tolosa et al., 2010 and Geresu et al., 2016).
The stimulatory effects of levamisole on macrophages may be particularly important because Brucella species tend to be an intracellular pathogen and macrophages are thought to be important in host defense in bovine brucellosis
.  The positive effect of levamisole given on day 7 may be due to the fact that helper cells function is maximal at that time.
 OIE, "Bovine Brucellosis
," in Terrestrial Manual, chapter 2.4.3, 2018, http://www.oie.int.
El-Diasty et al., "Isolation of Brucella abortus from a dog and a cat confirms their biological role in re-emergence and dissemination of bovine brucellosis
on dairy farms," Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, vol.
 Haileselassie Mekonnen, Shewit Kalayou, and Moses Kyule, "Serological survey of bovine brucellosis
in barka and arado breeds (Bos indicus) of Western Tigray, Ethiopia," Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol.
Brucella abortus is known to cause Bovine Brucellosis
, one of the primary causes of abortions in cattle.
Seroprevalence and risk factors for bovine brucellosis
Large-scale study of herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis