Ferronato, "Efficacy of botulinum
toxin in treating myofascial pain in bruxers: a controlled placebo pilot study," Cranio, vol.
is a gram-positive, anaerobic bacillus with seven antigenically unique serotypes (A-G).
toxin serotype E in the pipeline for treatment of glabellar lines has a rapid onset of action--within 24 hours--yet a response duration of only 2 to 4 weeks.
This suggests that the antidepressant effects of botulinum
toxin may not depend entirely on its paralytic effects, but also on its impact on the neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of depression.
(13) published a pilot study involving two patients with severe Raynaud's phenomenon who responded excellently to infiltration with botulinum
The prolonged excretion of toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum
is consistent with adult intestinal colonization botulism.
(15) The excellent tolerability of botulinum
toxins makes it an effective treatment alternative for patients who fail to tolerate, and therefore discontinue traditional oral prophylactics.
growth and other pathogens in processed meat products (Table 1).
This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of botulinum
toxin type A injections in the pediatric patients referred to our clinic because of sialorrhea.
Li Hu, Ph.D., M.D., from the Shanghai Jiao Tong University, and colleagues injected botulinum
toxin type A into half of each surgical wound closure among 16 consecutive patients who underwent facial surgery between June and October 2015.
How could this botulinum
toxin jump from one bacterial species to another?